Global Water Sanitation and Health: What this Course is about. Mark D. Sobsey University of North Carolina Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering [email protected] Kofi Annan United Nations Secretary-General.
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Global Water Sanitation and Health: What this Course is about
Mark D. Sobsey
University of North Carolina
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering
“We shall not finally defeat AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, or any of the other infectious diseases that plague the developing world until we have also won the battle for safe drinking-water, sanitation and basic health care.”
Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors
Water, sanitation and hygiene (5.5%)
Percent of total burden (within region)
Indoor air (3.7 %)
Water, sanitation and hygiene
Developing countries(high mortality)
More recent estimate even higher!
The Older Conventional View:
Lack of WSH = Disease and Poverty
The Newer Optimistic View!
WSH = An Engine for Development and Productivity
Millennium Development Goals
Inferior/Absent Community Wastewater Treatment Systems
Rx. Often Absent!
Untreated/poorly treated wastewater is discharged to land or natural waters
SOME BAD ONES!
~ 1 µM
(eggs shed in feces)
Excreta from humans and animals
Waterborne Pathogens Come Primarily from Feces by Various Routes of Exposure
E. coli from Spinach Lettuce & Tomatoes!
Adapted from Charles P. Gerba et al. 1975
Recent meta-analysis shows major impacts by
Increase awareness of the link between the 5Fs and disease and the benefits of appropriate hygiene behaviors
Behavior change techniques:
World Health Organization Health-Risk Based Framework
These principles apply to all types of WSH measures!
Celebrating Water for LifeThe International Decade for Action2005 to 2015
2008: International Year of Sanitation