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Plan C Pick a problem Pick some plants to study Design some experiments See where they lead us. Endomembrane system Organelles derived from the ER 1) ER 2) Golgi 3) Vacuoles 4) Plasma Membrane 5) Nuclear Envelope 6) Endosomes 7) Oleosomes. VACUOLES Vacuoles are subdivided:

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Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Plan C

Pick a problem

Pick some plants to study

Design some experiments

See where they lead us


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Endomembrane system

Organelles derived from the ER

1) ER

2) Golgi

3) Vacuoles

4) Plasma

Membrane

5) Nuclear

Envelope

6) Endosomes

7) Oleosomes


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

VACUOLES

Vacuoles are subdivided:

lytic vacuoles are distinct

from storage vacuoles!


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Endomembrane System

  • Oleosomes: oil storage bodies derived from SER

  • Surrounded by lipid monolayer!

    • filled with lipids: no internal hydrophobic effect!


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • endosymbionts

  • derived by division of preexisting organelles

  • no vesicle transport

  • Proteins & lipids are not glycosylated


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • endosymbionts

  • derived by division of preexisting organelles

  • little exchange of membranes with other organelles

  • 1) Peroxisomes (microbodies)


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Peroxisomes (microbodies)

1 membrane


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Peroxisomes (microbodies)

  • found in (nearly) all eukaryotes

  • 1 membrane

  • Fn:

    • 1) destroy H2O2, other O2-related poisons


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Peroxisomes

  • Fn:

    • destroy H2O2, other O2-related poisons

    • change fat to CH2O (glyoxysomes)


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Peroxisomes

  • Fns:

    • destroy H2O2, other

      O2-related poisons

    • change fat to CH2O

      (glyoxysomes)

    • Detoxify & recycle

      photorespiration products


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Peroxisomes

  • Fn:

    • destroy H2O2, other O2-related poisons

    • change fat to CH2O (glyoxysomes)

    • Detoxify & recycle photorespiration products

    • Destroy EtOH (made in anaerobic roots)


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Peroxisomes

  • ER can make peroxisomes under special circumstances!

  • e.g. peroxisome-less mutants can restore peroxisomes when the wild-type gene is restored


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

endosymbionts

1) Peroxisomes (microbodies)

2) Mitochondria


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Mitochondria

    • Bounded by 2 membranes


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Mitochondria

2 membranes

Smooth OM


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Mitochondria

2 membranes

Smooth OM

IM folds into cristae


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Mitochondria

    • -> 4 compartments

    • 1) OM

    • 2) intermembrane space

    • 3) IM

    • 4) matrix


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Mitochondria

    • matrix contains DNA, RNA and ribosomes


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Mitochondria

    • matrix contains DNA, RNA and ribosomes

    • Genomes vary from 100,000 to 2,500,000 bp, but only 40-43 genes


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Mitochondria

    • matrix contains DNA, RNA and ribosomes

    • Genomes vary from 100,000 to 2,500,000 bp, but only 40-43 genes

    • Reproduce by fission


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Mitochondria

    • matrix contains DNA, RNA and ribosomes

    • Genomes vary from 100,000 to 2,500,000 bp, but only 40-43 genes

    • Reproduce by fission

    • IM is 25% cardiolipin, a bacterial phospholipid


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Mitochondria

    • Genomes vary from 100,000 to 2,500,000 bp, but only 40-43 genes

    • Reproduce by fission

    • IM is 25% cardiolipin, a bacterial phospholipid

    • Genes most related to Rhodobacteria


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Mitochondria

    • Fn : cellular respiration

    • -> oxidizing food & supplying energy to cell

    • Also make many important biochemicals


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Mitochondria

    • Fn : cellular respiration

    • -> oxidizing food & supplying energy to cell

    • Also make important biochemicals & help recycle PR products


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • endosymbionts

    • Peroxisomes

    • Mitochondria

    • 3) Plastids


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Plastids

    • Chloroplasts do photosynthesis

    • Amyloplasts store starch

    • Chromoplasts store pigments

    • Leucoplasts are found in roots


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Chloroplasts

    • Bounded by 2 membranes

  • 1) outer envelope

  • 2) inner envelope


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Chloroplasts

  • Interior = stroma

  • Contains thylakoids

  • membranes where light

  • rxns of photosynthesis occur

  • mainly galactolipids


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Chloroplasts

  • Interior = stroma

  • Contains thylakoids

  • membranes where light rxns of photosynthesis occur

  • mainly galactolipids

  • Contain DNA, RNA, ribosomes


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Chloroplasts

Contain DNA, RNA, ribosomes

120,000-160,000 bp, ~ 100 genes


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Chloroplasts

Contain DNA, RNA, ribosomes

120,000-160,000 bp, ~ 100 genes

Closest relatives = cyanobacteria


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Chloroplasts

Contain DNA, RNA, ribosomes

120,000-160,000 bp, ~ 100 genes

Closest relatives = cyanobacteria

Divide by fission


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Chloroplasts

Contain DNA, RNA, ribosomes

120,000-160,000 bp, ~ 100 genes

Closest relatives = cyanobacteria

Divide by fission

Fns: Photosynthesis


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Chloroplasts

Fns: Photosynthesis & starch synth

Photoassimilation of N & S


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Chloroplasts

Fns: Photosynthesis & starch synth

Photoassimilation of N & S

Fatty acid & some lipid synth


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Chloroplasts

Fns: Photosynthesis & starch synth

Photoassimilation of N & S

Fatty acid & some lipid synth

Synth of ABA, GA, many other biochem


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Chloroplasts & Mitochondria

    • Contain eubacterial DNA, RNA, ribosomes

    • Inner membranes have bacterial lipids

    • Divide by fission

    • Provide best support for endosymbiosis


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Endosymbiosis theory (Margulis)

Archaebacteria ate eubacteria & converted them to symbionts


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Endosymbiosis theory (Margulis)

Archaebacteria ate

eubacteria &

converted them

to symbionts


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Endosymbiosis theory (Margulis)

Archaebacteria ate

eubacteria &

converted them

to symbionts


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • cytoskeleton

  • network of proteins which give cells their shape

    • also responsible for shape of plant cells because guide cell wall formation

    • left intact by detergents that extract rest of cell


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Cytoskeleton

Actin fibers (microfilaments)

~7 nm diameter

Form 2 chains of polar actin subunits arranged in a double helix


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Actin fibers

  • polar subunits arranged in a double helix

  • Add to + end

  • Fall off - end

  • Fn = movement


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Actin fibers

Very conserved in evolution

Fn = motility

Often with myosin


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Actin fibers

Very conserved in evolution

Fn = motility

Often with myosin: responsible for cytoplasmic streaming


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Actin fibers

Very conserved in evolution

Fn = motility

Often with myosin: responsible for cytoplasmic streaming,

Pollen tube growth & movement through plasmodesmata


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Actin fibers

Often with myosin: responsible for cytoplasmic streaming,

Pollen tube growth & movement through plasmodesmata


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Intermediate filaments

Protein fibers 8-12 nm dia (between MFs & MTs)

form similar looking filaments

Conserved central, rod-shaped -helical domain


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Intermediate filaments

2 monomers form dimers with parallel subunits

Dimers form

tetramers

aligned in

opposite

orientations

& staggered


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Intermediate filaments

2 monomers form dimers with parallel subunits

Dimers form

tetramers

Tetramers

form IF


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Intermediate filaments

2 monomers form dimers with parallel subunits

Dimers form

tetramers

Tetramers

form IF

Plants have several:

Fn unclear


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Microtubules

  • Hollow, cylindrical; found in most eukaryotes

    • outer diameter - 24 nm

    • wall thickness - ~ 5 nm

    • Made of 13 longitudinal rows

    • of protofilaments


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

Microtubules

Made of abtubulin subunits

polymerize to form protofilaments (PF)

PF form sheets

Sheets form

microtubules


Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

  • Microtubules

  • Protofilaments are polar

  • -tubulin @ - end

  • -tubulin @ + end

  • all in single MT have same polarity


  • Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

    Microtubules

    In constant flux

    polymerizing &depolymerizing

    Add to  (+)

    Fall off  (-)


    Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

    Microtubules

    Control growth by controlling

    rates of assembly &disassembly

    because these are distinct processes

    can be controlled independently!

    ColchicinemakesMTs disassemble

    Taxol prevents disassembly


    Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

    Microtubules

    Control growth by controlling rates of assembly &disassembly

    Are constantly rearranging inside plant cells!


    Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

    • Microtubules

    • Control growth by controlling rates of assembly &disassembly

    • Are constantly rearranging inside plant cells!

      • during mitosis & cytokinesis


    Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

    • Microtubules

    • Control growth by controlling rates of assembly &disassembly

    • Are constantly rearranging inside plant cells!

      • during mitosis & cytokinesis

      • Guide formation of cell plate & of walls in interphase


    Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

    µT Assembly

    µTs always emerge from Microtubule-Organizing Centers (MTOC)


    Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

    µT Assembly

    µTs always emerge from Microtubule-Organizing Centers (MTOC) patches of material at outer nuclear envelope


    Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

    • Microtubules

    • MAPs (Microtubule Associated Proteins) may:

      • stabilize tubules

      • alter rates of

      • assembly/disassembly

      • crosslink adjacent

      • tubules

      • link cargo


    Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

    2 classes of molecular motors

    1) Kinesins move cargo to µT plus end

    2) Dyneins move cargo tominus end

    “Walk” hand-over-hand towards chosen end


    Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

    µT functions

    Give cells shape by guiding cellulose synth


    Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

    µT functions

    Give cells shape by guiding cellulose synth

    Anchor organelles


    Plan c pick a problem pick some plants to study design some experiments see where they lead us

    µT functions

    Give cells shape by guiding cellulose synth

    Anchor organelles

    Intracellular motility


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