Africa and the arrival of islam
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Africa and the Arrival of Islam. AP World History. African states 600-1450. The Swahili States. Founded by Bantu settlers in 1 st millennium CE Islamic merchants settle in coastal villages Swahili culture emerges by 13 th century Major role in Indian Ocean trade network

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Africa and the Arrival of Islam

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Africa and the Arrival of Islam

AP World History

African states 600-1450

The Swahili States

  • Founded by Bantu settlers in 1st millennium CE

    • Islamic merchants settle in coastal villages

  • Swahili culture emerges by 13th century

  • Major role in Indian Ocean trade network

    • Trade raw materials for Indian, Islamic, & Chinese luxuries

Great Zimbabwe

  • Dominates central Africa from 9th-16th centuries

  • Built massive stone enclosures (zimbabwe)

  • Supplied gold to the Swahili coast

  • Declined due to internal divisions by the 16th century

Trans-Saharan Trade

  • 300 C.E. camels replaced horses and donkeys as transport animals

    • Speeds travel across the Sahara

    • Trade in gold, salt, and ivory flourishes

    • Islam arrives in 7th century

Rise of Sudanic States

  • Trans-Saharan trade led to the rise of the kingdoms in the Sudan

  • Common characteristics

    • Led by patriarch or council of elders

    • Based upon ethnic core

    • Rulers were considered sacred

    • Islam reinforced kingship

Kingdom of Ghana (750-1076)

  • Used territorial expansion to control Trans-Saharan trade routes

    • Trade led urbanization

  • Kings converted to Islam by the 10th century

    • Did not force upon others

  • Nomadic raids from the Sahara weakened Ghana in the early 13th century

Salt Mines

Gold Mines

Kingdom of Mali (1230-1620)

  • Malinke people created an empire in the early 13th century

    • Sundiata “the Lion Prince”

  • Agriculture, with the gold trade, was the base of the economy

    • Mansa Musa’s hajj in the 14th century became legendary

Mansa Musa’s Pilgrimage

Malinke Economy

  • Most of the people were rural farmers

    • Small farms owned by families

  • A special merchant class, called the juula, controlled trade

  • Slave trade became common after the Islamic conquest of North Africa

    • High demand for women and children

    • Estimated 4.8 million slaves over 700 years

Malinke Society & Culture

  • Formation of the kingdom heightened social differences

  • Society was organized according to clans

  • Many societies were matrilineal

    • Women enjoyed more freedom than most Eurasian cultures

  • Polygamy was common

Malinke Culture

  • Large portions of the population did not convert to Islam

    • Many converts maintained some of their old beliefs

  • History maintained by oral historian called griots

Drawing of a Malinke Griot

Djenne & Timbuktu

  • Timbuktu was famous for its library and university

  • Djenne was famous for The Great Mosque

    • Largest adobe building in the world

Madrasa Sankore in Timbuktu

Songhai Empire (1340-1591)

  • From the early 15th to the late 16th century, Songhai was one of the largest African empires in history

    • Founded by Sunni Ali and expanded by Askia Muhammad the Great

  • Conquered by Moroccans, with muskets, in 1591

Kingdom of Benin

  • City-state established by the Edo peoples in the 15th century

  • Known for its bronze and ivory sculptures

  • Portuguese were impressed by Benin City and the quality of Benin’s artwork

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