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Chapter 1 Notes. The Science of Biology. What is Science?. Science - an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world. Biology - science that seeks understanding of living world “bios” = life “logy” = study of. The Goal of Science. Investigate and understand nature.

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Chapter 1 notes

Chapter 1 Notes

The Science of Biology


What is science
What is Science?

  • Science - an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world


  • Biology - science that seeks understanding of living world

  • “bios” = life “logy” = study of


The goal of science
The Goal of Science

  • Investigate and understand nature.




Observations
Observations

  • All science begins with observations



The statement "the flower is purple" is a(n)

 a)  hypothesis

  b) inference

  c) quantitative observation

  d) qualitative observation


Quantitative vs qualitative
Quantitative vs Qualitative

  • Quantitative - involve numbers

    • There are two birds at the feeder”



Inferences
Inferences

  • Observations alone are not of much use

  • Scientists use observations to make inferences

  • Inference - logical conclusions based on prior knowledge and experience


Examples of inferences
Examples of Inferences

  • What inferences can you make?


Tools measuring system
Tools/Measuring System

  • Scientists use the Metric System

  • Metric System (SI) is universal and easy to convert units



  • Metric System Prefix Table

  • Prefix Symbol Multiplication Factor Power of 10

  • yotta Y 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 +24

  • zetta Z 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 +21

  • exa E 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 +18

  • peta P 1,000,000,000,000,000 +15

  • tera T 1,000,000,000,000 +12

  • giga G 1,000,000,000 +9

  • mega M 1,000,000 +6

  • kilo k 1,000 +3

  • hecto h 100 +2

  • deka da 10 +1

  • deci d 0.1 -1

  • centi c 0.01 -2

  • milli m 0.001 -3

  • micro µ 0.000,001 -6

  • nano n 0.000,000,001 -9

  • pico p 0.000,000,000,001 -12

  • femto f 0,000,000,000,000,001 -15

  • atto a 0,000,000,000,000,000,001 -18

  • zepto z 0,000,000,000,000,000,000,001 -21

  • yocto y 0,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,001 -24




Types of microscopes
Types of Microscopes

  • Compound Light Microscopes -

Specimen must be thin for light to pass through




Types of microscopes1
Types of Microscopes

  • Stereoscopes - Dissecting

  • More 3D viewing.

  • Solid specimens; light reflects back to eye

  • Two eyepieces


Types of microscopes2
Types of Microscopes

  • Electron Microscopes

  • 1000 times more powerful than light microscopes

  • Cannot examine live specimens


Compound light microscope parts
Compound Light Microscope - parts

  • Eyepiece - what you look through


  • Body Tube - provides distance for proper bending of light

  • Revolving Nosepiece - Rotates to change objectives


Compound light microscope parts1
Compound Light Microscope - parts

  • Objectives - Magnify image (scan, low, high)

  • Stage Clips - Holds slide in place


  • Stage - Where slide is placed

  • Diaphragm - regulates light passing through specimen


Compound light microscope parts2
Compound Light Microscope - parts

  • Light Source - provides light to pass through specimen

  • Base - Supports Microscope (hand underneath when carrying)

  • Arm - Place one hand here when carrying


Compound light microscope parts3
Compound Light Microscope - parts

  • Fine Focus - Slight adjustments in focusing

  • Course Focus - Large adjustments in focusing


The scientific method
The Scientific Method

  • Scientific Method - stepwise approach to solve everyday problems (not just “science” problems)


Scientific method steps
Scientific Method Steps

  • State the Problem

  • Form a Hypothesis

  • Set up a Controlled Experiment

    • Independent Variable - what changes

    • Dependent Variable - what responds to the change

    • Constants - stay the same


Scientific method steps1
Scientific Method Steps

  • Record Results

  • Analyze Results

  • Make a Conclusion


You are camping and you go to turn on your flashlight and it doesn’t work. So what is wrong with it?


Characteristics of living things
Characteristics of Living Things doesn’t work. So what is wrong with it?

  • Made of Cells


  • Reproduce doesn’t work. So what is wrong with it?


DNA



  • Use Energy doesn’t work. So what is wrong with it?



Characteristics of living things1
Characteristics of Living Things doesn’t work. So what is wrong with it?

  • Maintain Homeostasis (internal balance)

Homeostasis" is the maintenance of a "steady state", a state of chemical and physical consistency in the face of changes in the surroundings. Maintenance of such a steady state requires a sensitivity and appropriate response to even small changes



Levels of life
Levels of Life doesn’t work. So what is wrong with it?

  • Biology deals with life at various levels from the smallest molecule to the Earth as a whole.


Levels of life smallest to largest
Levels of Life (smallest to largest) doesn’t work. So what is wrong with it?

  • Molecule - groups of atoms; smallest unit of chemical compounds




Levels of life smallest to largest1
Levels of Life (smallest to largest) doesn’t work. So what is wrong with it?

  • Organism - individual living thing




Levels of life smallest to largest2
Levels of Life (smallest to largest) same area

  • Ecosystem - Community and its nonliving surroundings



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