Weather and Climate. September 11, 2000. Last Class. Defined weather, climate, meteorology, atmosphere, etc. History of meteorology Composition of the atmosphere Vertical Structure of the atmosphere. Density, Pressure, and Height. Density. Density = Mass/ Volume
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September 11, 2000
therefore there are fewer molecules (less mass) in a given volume, and density goes down.
n=moles of molecules
P = rRT
Where r = density
if P is constant => T ~ 1/r
if r is constant => P ~ T
We measure pressure with a barometer.
The first barometers were mercury barometer.
The aneroid barometer is commonly used in homes.Atmospheric Pressure
Where m=mass of object,
h=height of object above ground
Where m=mass of object
v=velocity of object
“Energy cannot be created nor can it be destroyed.”
that is, the energy lost during one process must equal the energy gained during another.
Higher Temperature=> Faster Molecules
Lower Temperature=> Slower Molecules
cold air => more dense air
warm air => less dense air
there is also potential energy!
-459 oF (Fahrenheit)
0 K (Kelvin)
K = oC + 273
Example: -20 oC = ? In Kelvin
Answer: -20 oC + 273 = 253 K
An increment of 1 oC is equal to an increment of 1.8 oF.
oC= 5/9 (oF – 32)
oF = 9/5 oC + 32Fahrenheit <=> Celsius
Example: 50 oF = ? oC
Answer: 5/9 (50 – 32) = 10 oC
Example: -5 oC = ? oF
Answer: 9/5(-5) +32 = 23 oF
“Sensible heat” is the heat we can feel and measure with a thermometer.
E = sT 4
=> As the temperature of an object increases, more total radiation is emitted per second.
lmax = constant/T
SUN => 0.5 mm
EARTH => 10 mm
While the sun has a maximum emitted at .5 mm, it still emits at almost all other wavelengths.