Feeding the beef cow production
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Feeding the Beef Cow Production 饲养肉用母牛. Tennis Marx, MSc. 泰妮丝 . 马克思 Beef Production Systems Specialist, Edmonton, Alberta Canada 加拿大阿尔伯塔省埃德蒙顿 肉牛生产体系专家. ENERGY 能量. Usually the most limiting nutrient in a ration

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Feeding the Beef Cow Production 饲养肉用母牛

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Feeding the beef cow production

Feeding the Beef Cow Production饲养肉用母牛

Tennis Marx, MSc.泰妮丝.马克思

Beef Production Systems Specialist,

Edmonton, Alberta Canada

加拿大阿尔伯塔省埃德蒙顿

肉牛生产体系专家


Energy

ENERGY能量

  • Usually the most limiting nutrient in a ration

  • Fuel required for body functions (movement, heat, production, weight gain, etc.)

  • Ruminants obtain energy from the fiber, carbohydrate and fat portions of a diet

  • 通常是日料中最有限的营养

  • 是身体功能的燃料(运动、热量、生产、增重,等)

  • 反刍动物通过日料中的纤维、碳水化合物、脂肪获得能量。


Signs of energy deficiency

SIGNS OF ENERGY DEFICIENCY能量缺乏的征兆

  • Reduction or cessation of growth and loss of weight

  • Reduced milk production, failure to conceive

  • Lower resistance to disease

  • Increased mortality

  • 生长减缓或停止,体重下降

  • 牛奶生产下降,受胎失败

  • 抗病力下降

  • 死亡率增加


Effects of energy deficiency on beef cows

Effects of Energy Deficiency on Beef Cows肉用母牛能量缺乏的后果

  • An Energy deficiency before calving will:

    • Slow down the cow’s return to estrus

    • The cow will be slow to show heat after calving

  • A Deficiency after calving will lower conception rates

  • 产犊前缺乏能量:

    -母牛再发情慢

    -产犊后发情越来越慢

  • 产犊后能量缺乏,受胎率低


Effect of an energy deficiency on reproductive performance

Effect of an Energy Deficiency on Reproductive Performance能量缺乏对繁殖性能的影响


Effect of an energy deficiency on reproductive performance1

Effect of an Energy Deficiency on Reproductive Performance能量缺乏对繁殖性能的影响

  • Approximately 21 Mcal of DE/day is normally required prior to calving and 27 Mcal of DE/day is required after calving.

  • The amount of energy after calving is much higher than the amount fed prior to calving.

  • 产犊前通常需要约21兆卡消化能/天,产犊后需要27兆卡消化能/天

  • 产犊后需要的能量高于产犊前


Effect of calving time on weaned weight

Effect of Calving time on Weaned Weight产犊时间对断奶重的影响

  • Delayed estrus causes late calving the following year.

  • Cows that calve late one year will calve late in the following years.

  • Calves that are born late will weight less at weaning time.

  • 发情延迟造成下一年产犊时间晚

  • 母牛一年产犊时间晚下一年产犊时间也会晚

  • 晚出生的犊牛断奶时体重会低


Increasing the energy content of diets

INCREASING THE ENERGY CONTENT OF DIETS增加日料中能量含量

  • Feed early cut grass hay or legumes instead of mature grass hay

  • Restrict amount of straw consumed

  • Grains are a concentrated source of energy

  • Feed corn or cereal grain e.g . barley

  • 用早割的干草或豆科干草代替成熟的干草

  • 限制秸秆的消耗量

  • 谷粒/粮食是能量的浓缩源

  • 喂玉米或谷类,例如:大麦


Protein

PROTEIN蛋白

  • Required for growth

  • In the rumen protein in the feed is broken down by microbes to ammonia (NH4) and carbon compounds.

  • Microbes use the NH4 to produce their own body protein.

  • 需要生长

  • 在瘤胃中饲料中的蛋白被微生物分解成氨(NH4)和碳化合物

  • 微生物使用NH4生产它们的体蛋白


Protein1

Protein蛋白

  • Cattle obtain most of their protein by digesting the microorganisms.

  • This process of breakdown and re synthesis of protein in the rumen allows the cow to use non protein nitrogen sources such as urea.

  • 牛通过消化这些细菌获得大多数蛋白

  • 这个在瘤胃中分解和综合过程允许牛使用非蛋白氮源,如尿素


Protein deficiency

PROTEIN DEFICIENCY蛋白缺乏

  • Primary symptom of protein deficiency is a depressed appetite or feed intake.

    • A reduced feed intake can cause a lower energy intake

      Reduced milk production

  • Irregular or delayed estrus

  • Loss of weight

  • Slow growth

  • 蛋白缺乏的最初症状是食欲下降或饲料采食下降

    -饲料采食下降会造成能量采食不足

    牛奶生产下降

  • 不正常或延迟发情

  • 体重下降

  • 生长慢


Protein deficiency1

PROTEIN DEFICIENCY蛋白缺乏

  • The levels of protein in roughages decreases as the forage becomes more mature.

  • Green leafy roughages contain more protein than mature (brown) roughages.

  • Legumes contain higher levels of protein than grasses

  • Protein levels of grains vary with level of nitrogen in soil, growing zone, and weather

  • 饲草越成熟在粗饲中的蛋白含量就越低

  • 绿叶多的粗饲中蛋白含量高于成熟(褐色)粗饲

  • 豆科牧草蛋白含量高于禾本科

  • 由于土壤中含氮量、生长带和气候不同粮食中蛋白含量也不同


Protein supplementation

PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION蛋白补充

  • Feed early cut forages

  • Legume versus grass hay

  • Soybean, cotton seed meal, canola meal

  • Brewers mash or distillers grains

  • 32% beef supplements

  • Urea (NPN), liquid or block protein, supplements or ammoniated feeds

  • 喂早割的饲草

  • 豆科对禾本科

  • 黄豆、棉籽饼粉、堪诺拉饼粉

  • 啤酒糟或白酒糟

  • 32%肉牛补饲

  • 尿素(NPN),液体或块蛋白,补饲或氨化饲料


Major minerals

MAJOR MINERALS常量矿物质

  • Calcium (Ca)

  • Phosphorous (P)

  • Magnesium (Mg)

  • Sodium (Na)

  • Chlorine (Cl)

  • Potassium (K)

  • Sulfur (S)

  • 钙(CA)

  • 磷(P)

  • 镁(MG)

  • 钠(NA)

  • 氯(CL)

  • 钾(K)

  • 硫(S)


Trace minerals

TRACE MINERALS微量矿物质

  • Copper, zinc, iron, molybdenum铜、锌、铁、钼

  • Manganese, cobalt, iodine锰、钴、碘

  • Selenium, chromium硒、铬

  • Tin, nickel and fluorine锡、镍、氟


Building a ration

BUILDING A RATION建立日料

  • Ration must provide balanced amounts of energy, protein, calcium and phosphorous

  • Provide required amounts of salt, trace minerals, and vitamin A, D, & E

  • Performance will only be as good as the most limiting nutrient allows

  • DM vs as-fed or wet basis

  • 日料必须使能量、蛋白、钙和磷平衡

  • 提供需要量的盐、微量矿物质和维生素A、D和E

  • 性能要尽量达到最好

  • 干物质对喂食状态或湿喂


Steps

STEPS步骤

  • Know the weight and frame size of animal

    掌握动物的重量和身架

  • Evaluate your feeds and determine their nutritional value per pound of feed

    评估你的饲料并确定每磅饲料的营养值

  • Approx the total amounts of each feed that you want included in the ration

    使日料中的每种饲料达到各自的最佳数量


Factors affecting feed intake

FACTORS AFFECTING FEED INTAKE影响饲料采食的因素

  • Stage of maturity

  • Condition

  • Species

  • Physical form

  • Voluntary intake (90% dry matter) equivalent to 2 - 3 % of body weight

  • 成熟期

  • 体况

  • 品种

  • 身体构成

  • 自由采食(90%干物质)当量 体重的2-3%


Dry matter intake of various feeds

DRY MATTER INTAKE OF VARIOUS FEEDS不同饲料的干物质采食

  • DM intake (% of B.W.)

  • Lush, young legume, grass pasture 2.75 - 3.5%

  • Grass and grass/legume silage good quality 2.0 - 2.5%

  • Good quality legume hay 2.5 - 3.0%

  • 干物质采食(体重的%)

  • 茂盛、鲜嫩豆科、禾本科草场 2.75-3.5%

  • 禾本科和禾本科/豆科青贮好质量 2.0-2.5%

  • 好质量豆科干草 2.5-3.0%


Dry matter intake of various feeds1

DRY MATTER INTAKE OF VARIOUS FEEDS不同饲料的干物质采食

  • Re-growth pasture 1.5 - 2.0%

    再生草场1.5-2.5%

  • Mature grass hay 1.0 - 1.5%

    成熟禾本科干草1.0-1.5%

  • Cereal and grass straw .5 - 1.5%

    粮食和草秸杆0.5-1.5%


Cold weather feeding of cows

Cold Weather Feeding of Cows冷气候情况下饲养母牛

  • Sudden drops in temperature during winter will cause cows & feedlot cattle to consume more feed.

  • If cattle are fed poor quality feeds (straw), they will try to consume more than they can digest and may become impacted.

  • Processing poor quality feed through a hammer mill will only increase feed intake, increasing potential for impaction.

    • Will not increase energy intake of diet.

  • 冬季突然降温母牛对饲料需求量增加

  • 如果母牛吃的是质量不好的饲料(秸秆)它们就尽量多吃,以至于超出其消化能力,造成梗塞

  • 用锤式粉碎机加工质量不好的饲料只能增加饲料采食,增加梗塞的危险

    -不能增加日料能量采食


Cold weather feeding of cow sample diet 450 kg beef cow mid pregnancy 450

Cold Weather Feeding of CowSample Diet – 450 kg Beef Cow mid-Pregnancy冷气候情况下饲养母牛样品日料—450公斤中期妊娠的肉用母牛

  • During periods of cold temperatures, increase the energy content of the diet.

    在冷温度时期增加日料的能量含量

  • By feeding additional grain at a rate of 0.5 kg of grain for every –5° C that the temperature is below –20° C at mid-day.

  • 在中午温度-20%时每下降-5º C就要增加0.5公斤的粮食


Sample diet 450 kg beef cow after calving 450

Sample Diet – 450 kg Beef Cow After Calving简单日料—450公斤产犊后的肉用母牛

  • Cereal (corn) straw 7.5 Kg / day

  • Alfalfa Hay1.5 kg / day

  • Corn Grain3.0 kg / day

  • Distillers Mash2.0 kg / day

  • CaHP040.018 kg/day

  • Fort Trace Mineral Salt0.02 kg / day

  • Vitamin ADE0.003 kg / day

  • Total amount fed15.54 kg/day/cow

  • 粮食(玉米)秸秆 7.5公斤/天

  • 苜蓿干草 1.5公斤/天

  • 玉米 3.0公斤/天

  • 白酒糟 2.0公斤/天

  • CaHPO4 0.018公斤/天

  • 福特微量矿物质盐 0.02公斤/天

  • 维生素 ADE 0.003公斤/天

  • 饲料总量 15.54公斤/天/母牛


Conclusions

Conclusions结论

  • These rations were formulated using average book feed values.

  • It is advised to feed test each of the feeds used prior to the start of your winter feeding program.

  • Monitor the condition of the cattle during the winter.

  • Adjust diets to cows condition & appetite , changes in weather and differences in feed sources.

  • 这些日料都是用平均饲料值配制的

  • 建议你在冬季饲养计划开始前测试你所有的饲料

  • 冬季监测牛的膘情

  • 根据牛的膘情、食欲、气候变化和饲料源调整日料


Conclusion

Conclusion结论

  • If you want consistent high conception rates, shorter calving periods and high milk production,you must provide the necessary nutrients in adequate quantities!

  • 如果你想始终获得高受胎率、短产犊期和高产奶量,你必须提供充足数量的必要营养!


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