. 1. Episodic- Memory of a specific event . Person experienced event or event took place in person's presence.2. Flashbulb- Important event, have mental photograph of every detail. Usually special memory: birth of child, 9/113. Semantic- General knowledge. Don't usually remember where or when you
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1. Chapter 7 Memory
2. 1. Episodic- Memory of a specific event . Person experienced event or event took place in person’s presence.
2. Flashbulb- Important event, have mental photograph of every detail. Usually special memory: birth of child, 9/11
3. Semantic- General knowledge. Don’t usually remember where or when you acquired info/memory. Ex. ABC’s, how to read.
3. What was the picture on the last slide? 4. Explicit- Clear or clearly stated or explained memory of specific info. Ex: episodic, semantic
5.Implicit- Implied, not clearly stated: consist of skills or procedures you have learned. Ex: throwing a ball, riding a bike or skateboard. Even if not used will stay with you for a long time.
6. Encoding- translation of info into a form in which it can be stored (like a computer). Ex: OTTFFSSENT
A) visual codes- see things as a picture to store info.
B) acoustic codes- read a repeat to yourself several times, aka “auditory” . Records letters in memory as a sequence of sounds.
C) Semantic- Attempt to make sense of letters, figure out their meaning. Ex: last four letters spell “sent”. “relating it to meaning”
4. What was the color of the last slide? Why was it easy or difficult to recall?
Let’s play a game- Please write your answers on a separate piece of paper to be turned in at the end of class.
5. 7. Storage- Involved in the 2nd process of memory, it is maintenance of encoded memory over time. Use strategies to maintain memory.
A) Maintenance Rehearsal- Repeating info over and over again to keep from forgetting it. Ex: Actors without connecting it to feeling, phone numbers
B) Elaborative Rehearsal- make new info meaningful by relating it to info you already know well. Widely used in education.
6. C) Organizational Systems- Memory can resemble a storehouse of files and file cabinets in which you store what you need to learn and remember.
D) Filing Errors- We can “file” info incorrectly placing “wrong label” on info. Ex: misguided directions, artist+song
7. 8. Retrieval- locating stored info and returning it to conscious thought. Need to know where you stored it, some things easy: name, phone number. Use codes to learn it ex: I before e.
A) Context-Dependent memory- come back to you at a certain place. Memory in which the person first had the experience, dependent on the place where they were encoded/stored. Ex: assigned seats
B) State-Dependent Memory- Memories retrieved because of mood or emotional state when they were originally encoded is recreated. Ex: sad time illicit sad memories. Drugs alter state of consciousness and thus result in state-dependent memories
8. C) On the tip of the tongue- come so close to retrieving info, use sound codes to help retrieve memory/info due to “files” and “labels” encoded in our memory
9. What was the transition on the last slide? Three Stages of Memory 9. Sensory Memory- 1st stage of memory, initial recording of information as it enters through our senses. Such as a row of letters or numbers flashed on a screen, that memory trace lasts for a fraction unless we do something with it. Iconic Memory: like snapshots, brief Eidetic Memory: visual stimuli over long period of time “photographic memory” Echoic: mental traces of sounds
10. Short Term Memory- If you pay attention to iconic and echoic memory you can transfer that info into memory. Also called “working memory”. Info begins to fade rapidly after several seconds. Ex: math problems as you work on them, phone number as you dial it. Limited in space.
10. Short term Memory techniques A) primacy and recency effects- When remembering a series of letters you tend to remember 1st and last better than the middle. Primacy: tendency to recall the initial items
Recency: remembering the last items of the series, more easier remembered because it’s “fresher” Ex: Memory games from earlier slide.
11. B) chunking: reorganizing the info into manageable units that are easier to remember, most chunking is 7 items long. Ex: phone #’s, PEMDAS
C) Interference- Once short term memory is full, new information appears in short term memory and takes place of what is already there. Like pushing it off a shelf.
12. Long Term Memory 11. Long Term Memory- 3rd final stage. New info constantly being transformed. Contains more info than hard-drive. Names, dates, 2nd grade, 8th birthday, all in color, come in sound (if we hear) with smells, touches and tastes.
A) Capacity- Yet to discover the limit of memory. Limited to the amount of attention we pay to things.
13. B) Memory as Reconstructive- memory is not recorded and played back like videos and movies reconstructed from bits and pieces of our experience. When reconstructed tend to shape them according to personal and individual ways in which we view the world. We put our personal stamp on our memories.
C) Schemas- Mental representations that we form of the world by organizing bits of info into knowledge. Reconstruct info from ideas of what you think. Ex: draw eyeglasses, hourglass. Influenced both the ways we perceive things and way stored in memory.