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Late Nineteenth-Century Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa. 1880-1914. Map_22.05.jpg. Map_22.06.jpg. Causes of “New” Imperialism. ECONOMIC motives PRESTIGE and NATIONALISM DOMESTIC POLITICS INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION and its technological advances SOCIAL DARWINISM WHITE MAN’S BURDEN

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Late Nineteenth-Century Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa

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Late Nineteenth-Century Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa

1880-1914


Map_22.05.jpg


Map_22.06.jpg


Causes of “New” Imperialism

  • ECONOMIC motives

  • PRESTIGE and NATIONALISM

  • DOMESTIC POLITICS

  • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION and its technological advances

  • SOCIAL DARWINISM

  • WHITE MAN’S BURDEN

  • MISSIONARY ZEAL


Egypt and modernization

  • Egypt - great, ancient civilization

  • after 525 BCE, Egypt was ruled by foreigners, most recently the Ottoman empire.

  • 1798: Napoleon occupied the country for three years.

  • After Napoleon, Ottomans appointed an Albanian-born, Turkish general, Muhammad Ali (1769-1849)

  • Ali began modernizing Egypt


Muhammad Ali (1769-1849)


Egypt and modernization

  • 1849: Ali died, but Egypt was becoming a locally powerful and almost fully independent state, ruled by Ali’s family

  • Muhammad Ali’s policies attracted many Europeans to the region

  • In the port city of Alexandria, more than 50,000 Europeans were living in 1864.

  • Europeans often served as advisors to army officers, engineers, doctors etc.


Egypt and modernization

  • Ismail (r. 1863 to 1879) renewed Muhammad’s Europeanizing of Egypt

  • Imagined a vast empire in northeast Africa: irrigation networks, cotton production and exports to Europe

  • Ismail encouraged Egyptians to get a European education and come back

  • Ismail also borrowed a lot of money from British and French banks


Egypt and modernization

  • Suez Canal

  • Took 11 years to (re-)build

  • Used up to 30,000 forced laborers

  • 1869: completed by French company

  • 1875: Ismail forced to sell shares for 4 million pounds to British government


Egypt and modernization

  • Ismail’s debt problems increased

  • French and British imposed overseers

  • Interference provoked nationalist reaction


Egyptian Nationalist Party Colonel Ahmed Arabi


Egypt and modernization

  • 1879: British and French forced Ottomans to remove Ismail.

  • Son Tewfiq took his place.

  • Arabi increasingly challenged Tewfiq’s authority.

  • 1882: anti-foreigner riots in Alexandria


Egypt and occupation

  • 1882: British send Navy

  • Bombard Alexandria

  • Arabi tries to resist, but soon all of Egypt occupied “temporarily”.

  • Stayed until 1956.


Egypt and occupation

  • British Consul: General Evelyn Baring (r. 1883-1907)

  • NEW model for European expansion

    • densely populated areas

    • military force

    • political domination

    • self-justifying ideology of beneficial reform


King of Belgium, Leopold II (r. 1865-1909)

  • 1860: "I believe that the moment is come for us to extend our territories. I think that we must lose no time, under penalty of seeing the few remaining good positions seized upon by more enterprising nations than our own.”

  • 1876: International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of the Congo


Henry M. Stanley (1841-1904)

  • Orphan

  • Self-made

  • Wanderer

  • Journalist

  • Explorer

  • Found David Livingstone

  • 1878: went to work for Leopold


Map_22.05.jpg


Pierre de Brazza (1852-1905)

  • Explored the north of the Congo river for France


Berlin Conference (1884-1885):Otto von Bismarck and Jules Ferry


Berlin Conference (1884-1885):Otto von Bismarck and Jules Ferry

  • Effective Occupation: “XXXV. The Signatory Powers of the present Act recognize the obligation to insure the establishment of authority in the regions occupied by them on the coasts of the African Continent sufficient to protect existing rights, and, as the case may be, freedom of trade and of transit under the conditions agreed upon.”

  • Congo Free State

  • Abolished Slavery

    Led to the occupation of almost the entire continent.


Battle of Khartoum, 1884-85


Battle of Adowa, 1896Menelik II of Ethiopia vs. Italy


Battle of Omdurman, 1898


Battle of Omdurman, 1898: Around 10,000 Ansar were killed, 13,000 wounded,5,000 taken prisoner.British force lost 48 men with 382 wounded.


Fashoda incident, 1898

French: Jean-Baptiste Marchand

British: Horatio Herbert Kitchener (later Lord Kitchener)


George Washington Williams (1849-1891)

  • First African American historian

  • 1889: Leopold II

  • 1890: Congo Free State to settle African Americans

  • 1890: wrote Leopold an open letter

  • 1891: died in Blackpool


Joseph Conrad (1857-1924)

  • Jozef Teodor Konrad Nalecz Korzeniowski

  • Merchant marine

  • Languages

  • Congo in 1890

  • Heart of Darkness (1899)


Map_22.06.jpg


Consequences of New Imperialism

1. ARMY OF OCCUPATION: Guns and plunder

2. AFRICAN SOCIETY

  • DEATH

  • RULES OF SOCIETY

  • ECONOMY

  • NEW BORDERS

  • HUMILIATION


Consequences (cont.)

3. CULTURE

4. CONFLICT AMONGST IMPERIAL POWERS

5. ENCOURAGED EUROPEANS’ SENSE OF SUPERIORITY and RACISM


GDP by country


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