The spark
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The Spark. Chapter 27 Section 2. Introduction. Problems arising in the Balkans will lead to the beginnings of WWI nationalistic ideas will culminate into an explosion of bloodshed the Balkans were known as the “powder keg” of Europe. Trouble in the Balkans.

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The Spark

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The spark

The Spark

Chapter 27

Section 2


Introduction

Introduction

  • Problems arising in the Balkans will lead to the beginnings of WWI

  • nationalistic ideas will culminate into an explosion of bloodshed

  • the Balkans were known as the “powder keg” of Europe


Trouble in the balkans

Trouble in the Balkans

  • In the early 1900’s, a myriad of ethnic groups existed in the Balkans

  • the largest group--the Slavs--were a majority of the Austria-Hungarian population

  • although the largest group within A-H, the slavs did not share equal rights with the Austrians or Hungarians

  • in Bosnia and Herzegovina, nationalism among the Slavs ran very high

  • these Slavs wanted to join Serbia


The spark

  • The Austria-Hungarian Slavs did have some support from Czar Nicholas II of Russia

  • he supported their idea but was not prepared to militarily help the A-H Slavs against the Triple Alliance

  • Nicholas tells the Serbia to accept the status quo

  • Serbian radicals do not heed Russia’s advice

  • many nationalistic groups begin to arise all over Serbia and Slavic regions of A-H


The spark

  • June 28, 1914: the Austria-Hungarian emperor’s nephew (also heir to the throne) , Archduke Franz Ferdinand, traveled to Sarajevo, Bosnia

  • Archduke Ferdinand had planned on giving the Slavs in Bosnia and other regions voice--equal to that of the Austrians and Hungarians--in the A-H government

  • the Archduke and his wife had come to Sarajevo to deliver this news to the people

  • part of the ceremony involved a parade

  • seven assassins were stationed along the parade route to assassinate the Archduke


The spark

  • These 7 were part of a Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand (aka. The Union of Death)

  • the 1st assassin fired and missed

  • the car eventually took a wrong and the Archduke and his wife were killed

  • the assassin--Gavrillo Princip (19 yrs. Old)

  • he used a newly invented American weapon in the assassination--the Model 1911 semi-automatic pistol


The spark

  • Austria-Hungary will blame the Serbians for the assassination even though the killing did not occur in Serbia

  • A-H wanted to punish the Serbians

  • A-H also wanted to ensure that they had German support if Russia entered on the side of Serbia

  • Germany agreed to help A-H


The spark

  • July 23, 1914: A-H gives Serbia an ultimatum: Serbia should allow A-H officials into Serbia to suppress all subversive movements and to further investigate Archduke Ferdinand’s killing

  • Serbia had 48 hours to reply

  • Serbia knew they were not ready for war against A-H

  • July 25, 1914: Serbia answered by rejecting A-H’s wish to send officials into Serbia

  • A-H did not like the answer

  • July 28, 1914: 1 month after Franz Ferdinand’s murder, A-H declared war on Serbia


The spark

  • Both A-H and Serbia begin to mobilize for war


European war

European War

  • Most in Europe wanted to avoid war and believed war could be avoided

  • each side pushed the other to the brink of war hoping that the other side would back down--unfortunately, this did not work

  • Russia acted first once A-H declared war

  • Russia knew they had to help Serbia or face the hatred of the Balkan Slavs

  • Russia believed they would also receive some help from France


The spark

  • July 30, 1914: Czar Nicholas II began mobilizing Russian troops against A-H and Germany

  • July 31, 1914: A-H begins mobilization against Russia

  • now that Russian had entered into a war with A-H and Germany, the other Triple Entente members had to make a decision

  • July 31, 1914: Germany gives Russia an ultimatum: cancel mobilization or face war with Germany


The spark

  • Also, Germany issued an ultimatum to France on July 31: Germany gave France 18 hours to decide on French neutrality if Germany and Russia went to war

  • Nicholas never replied to Germany, and Germany declared war on Russia (August 1, 1914)

  • August 3, 1914: Germany declares war on France


The spark

  • Great Britain wanted no part of war

  • GB believed they could negotiate their way out of war

  • August 1, 1914: Germany marched into Luxembourg and demanded that Belgium give Germany free passage into France

    • Belgium was a neutral nation

    • Belgium refused to let Germany pass

    • Belgium also asked Great Britain for help in the matter

  • August 3, 1914: Germany invaded Belgium

    • GB sent Germany an ultimatum: pull German troops out of Belgium or face war with GB

    • Germany refused to withdraw troops


The spark

  • August 4,1914: Great Britain declares war on Germany

  • The use of alliances escalated a small conflict between A-H and Serbia into an all out European war and, eventually, into a full scale world war.


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