Cuban Missile Crisis. GCE O Level Specimen Paper (2192/3). 1(a) Study Source A. What is the message of the cartoon? EYA using details of the cartoon and your own knowledge. (5m).
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Moves on from L3 – Understanding the message of the cartoon and puts it into context:
The cartoonist is commenting on Khrushchev building a military base in Cubarepresented by the small overhanging branchand Kennedy’s reaction to it. However, a greater threat to the USSR is posed by US missile bases in Turkey, West Germany and Japan, represented by the large tree and its big branches growing in Kennedy’s garden. The US bases had developed during the increased tension of the Cold War during the 1950s.
Explains the Purpose of the Cartoon OR an outcome that the message produces in the audience:
The source is an anti-Cold War cartoon drawing attention to the growing dangers of the USA and the USSR having missile bases which threaten each other as supported by the USSR’s military base in Cuba and the US missile bases in Turkey, West Germany and Japan. The aim of the cartoon is to get the two superpowers to review their dangerous nuclear arms race.
L1: Unsupported Assertion of Bias (1m) – No, the sources are not helpful as they are American views and thus must be bias.
L3: Valid Inference supported by the source(s) (3-4m) – Source B tells me that Kennedy stood up to Khrushchev as Castro was against the USA as he took over American-owned businesses. Source C indicates that Khrushchev believed Kennedy was weak because he was young and inexperienced.
L4: Bias, explained and supported by source(s) (4m) – It is only an American opinion. The sources may be exaggerated when they said ‘Castro is hostile to us’ (Source B); Khrushchev thinks I have no guts’ (Source C) as the superpowers were great rivals.
L5: Evaluates the source(s) by cross-reference to other sources or contextual knowledge (5m) – L3 + Source C suggests that Kennedy stood up to Khrushchev over Cuba because he did not want to show political weakness after the fiasco of the Bay of Pigs invasion. (In this case, there is only contextual knowledge)
L6: Evaluates the source(s) by commenting on tone/language or purpose/audience of source(s)(6m) – Both sources suggest that Kennedy stood up to Khrushchev over Cuba because he wanted to send a clear message that he would take strong action to ensure Cuba did not fall under Communist control. (In this case, there is only purpose/audience)
L1: False Matching (1m) – Source D shows cowboys while Source E shows arm wrestlers.
L3: Supports Similarity from the sources (4-5m) – Sources D and E both show that Kennedy and Khrushchev are adversaries as they are shown in a gun duel (Source D) and arm wrestling (Source E)
L4: L3 + Viewpoint/Perspective (6m) – In addition to L3 (put comment down), they are quite different in showing what was at the heart of the matter – it was not just about personalities, there was a real threat of nuclear war.
L1: Answers on the Cuban Missile Crisis (1m) – These answers do not specifically address the question.
L3: Explains reason(s) why the Cuban Missile Crisis was important to Kennedy and/or Khrushchev (4-7m) – There was a question of the strength of Kennedy’s leadership and how Khrushchev would view his authority (support with Source C) and the real threat of a nuclear war or mutually assured destruction affecting both USA and the USSR (support with Source E)
L4: L3 + Addresses the question of ‘how important (8m) – L3 + Source E indicates that the Cuban Missile Crisis may have led to nuclear war and it was of vital importance to both Kennedy and Khrushchev that this was avoided. However, on a political level, Source E indicates that neither leader wished to show weakness, thus giving the other an advantage.