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Chapter 4, part B. Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells. Plasma Membrane. Functions for membranes Selective permeability allows passage of some molecules Movement through the membrane Active - requires energy Passive - no energy involved Enzymes for ATP production

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Chapter 4 part b l.jpg

Chapter 4, part B

Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells


Plasma membrane l.jpg
Plasma Membrane

  • Functions for membranes

  • Selective permeability allows passage of some molecules

  • Movement through the membrane

    • Active - requires energy

    • Passive - no energy involved

  • Enzymes for ATP production

  • Photosynthetic pigments on foldings called chromatophores or thylakoids


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Plasma Membrane

  • Damage to the membrane by alcohols, quaternary ammonium (detergents) and polymyxin antibiotics causes leakage of cell contents.


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Movement Across Membranes

Passive Transport

Diffusion and Osmosis

  • Simple diffusion: Movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

  • Facilitative diffusion: Solute combines with a transporter protein in the membrane.



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Movement Across Membranes

  • Osmosis

    • Movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of lower water.

  • Osmotic pressure

    • The pressure needed to stop the movement of water across the membrane.

Figure 4.18a



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Movement Across Membranes

  • Active transport of substances requires a transporter protein and ATP.

  • Group translocation of substances requires a transporter protein and PEP.


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Cytoplasm

  • Cytoplasm is the substance inside the plasma membrane

Figure 4.6a, b


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Nuclear Area

  • Nuclear area (nucleoid)

Figure 4.6a, b


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Ribosomes

Figure 4.6a


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Ribosomes

50S and 30S subunits making a 70S ribosome

Composed of RNA and protein

Figure 4.19


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Inclusions

  • Phosphate reserves

  • Energy reserves

  • Energy reserves

  • Energy reserves

  • Ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase for CO2 fixation

  • Protein covered cylinders

  • Iron oxide (destroys H2O2)

  • Metachromatic granules (volutin)

  • Polysaccharide granules

  • Lipid inclusions

  • Sulfur granules

  • Carboxysomes

  • Gas vacuoles

  • Magnetosomes


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Endospores

  • Resting cells

  • Resistant to desiccation, heat, chemicals

  • Bacillus, Clostridium

  • Sporulation: Endospore formation

  • Germination: Return to vegetative state



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Eukaryotic Cells

  • Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

    • Prokaryote comes from the Greek words for pre-nucleus.

    • Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for true nucleus.



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Flagella and Cilia

Figure 4.23a, b


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Eukaryotic Flagella

  • Microtubules

  • Tubulin

  • 9 pairs + 2 arrangements

Figure 4.23c


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Cell Wall

  • Cell wall

    • Plants, algae, fungi

    • Carbohydrates

  • Cellulose, chitin, glucan, mannan

  • Glycocalyx

    • Carbohydrates extending from animal plasma membrane

    • Bonded to proteins and lipids in membrane


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Plasma Membrane

  • Phospholipid bilayer

  • Peripheral proteins

  • Integral proteins

  • Transmembrane proteins

  • Sterols

  • Glycocalyx carbohydrates


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Plasma Membrane

  • Selective permeability allows passage of some molecules

  • Simple diffusion

  • Facilitative diffusion

  • Osmosis

  • Active transport

  • Endocytosis

    • Phagocytosis: Pseudopods extend and engulf particles

    • Pinocytosis: Membrane folds inward bringing in fluid and dissolved substances


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Eukaryotic Cell

  • Cytoplasm Substance inside plasma membrane and outside nucleus

  • Cytosol Fluid portion of cytoplasm

  • Cytoskeleton Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules

  • Cytoplasmic streaming Movement of cytoplasm throughout cells


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Organelles

  • Membrane-bound:

    • Nucleus Contains chromosomes

    • ER Transport network

    • Golgi complex Membrane formation and secretion

    • Lysosome Digestive enzymes

    • Vacuole Brings food into cells and provides support

    • Mitochondrion Cellular respiration

    • Chloroplast Photosynthesis

    • Peroxisome Oxidation of fatty acids; destroys H2O2


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Eukaryotic Cell

  • Not membrane-bound:

    • Ribosome Protein synthesis

    • Centrosome Consists of protein fibers and centrioles

    • Centriole Mitotic spindle formation


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Nucleus

Figure 4.24



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Ribosomes

  • 80S

    • Membrane-bound Attached to ER

    • Free In cytoplasm

  • 70S

    • In chloroplasts and mitochondria


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Golgi Complex

Figure 4.26


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Lysosomes

Figure 4.22b


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Vacuoles

Figure 4.22b


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Mitochondrion

Figure 4.27


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Chloroplast

Figure 4.28


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Endosymbiotic Theory

http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anisamples/nonmajorsbiology/organelles.html

Figure 10.2



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