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Task analysis in transportation planning for user interface metaphor design. Jörn Möltgen. Institute for Geoinformatics University of Münster. Outline. VUGIS Motivation and Goal Metaphors for User Interfaces Where do metaphors come from ? From task analysis to design

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Task analysis in transportation planning for user interface metaphor design

Jörn Möltgen

Institute for Geoinformatics

University of Münster


Outline
Outline metaphor design

  • VUGIS

  • Motivation and Goal

  • Metaphors for User Interfaces

  • Where do metaphors come from ?

  • From task analysis to design

  • An example from transportation planning


Integration of GIS, Environmental models and transportation models in transportation planning

Supported by a grant from the ministry of science of North-Rhine Westphalia (MSWWF-NRW) within the

Innovationsprogramm Forschung,

Programmschwerpunkt

„Mobilität und Verkehr von morgen“


Motivation
Motivation models in transportation planning

  • GIS use for transportation domain can improve efficiency

  • but most GIS are intended for expert use

  • Transportation planners belong to group of non-experts

  • „over featured“ systems decrease usability

  • existing data collections cannot be transformed in information value for the planner

  • Planning processes become lengthy and intransparent


Motivation 2
Motivation (2) models in transportation planning

  • existing:

    • Data: NWSIB, GDF, ATKIS, ALK, …

    • Models: transportation and environmental

    • Systems: GIS

  • missing: usability for decision-making

  • innovation: services for planers


Goals
Goals models in transportation planning

  • Direct GIS access for transportation planners

    • intuitive use of GIS

    • using the planners’ language

  • Translation between GIS and planner

    Metaphors help to extend the field of users


Goals models in transportation planning

User Interface

...

...

Number of cars

Noise

...

Services

Visualisation

GIS

Functions

Transportation

Models

Environmental

Models

Other Models

Semantic Mapper

ALK

GIS Database

???

???

ATKIS


  • Levels of user models in transportation planning

  • citizens

  • politicians

  • decision makers

  • „Träger öffentl. Belange“

  • domain planner

  • GIS experts

User Interface

...

...

Number of cars

Noise

...

Visualisation

GIS

Functions

Transportation

Models

Environmental

Models

Other Models

Semantic Mapper

???

GIS Database

???

???

ATKIS


Metaphors for user interfaces
Metaphors for User Interfaces models in transportation planning

  • Allow „to understand one thing in terms of another, without thinking the two are the same“ (Sweetser 1990)

  • Well-tested method for UI design  XEROX STAR

  • They link the underlying system to the users‘s ontology

  • Source domain of metaphor establish an ontology of UI


Metaphors for user interfaces1
Metaphors for User Interfaces models in transportation planning

  • Distinction of paradigms and metaphors

    • Paradigms conceptualise the overall systems use

    • Metaphors depend on the framework given by the paradigm

  • „domain metaphors“ assign additional functions to metaphors


Where do metaphors usually come from
Where do metaphors usually come from ? models in transportation planning

  • Choosing from a set of commonly known metaphors

  • Invention, evaluation, redesign

  • Observing explanations

  • Principles: structure, applicability, suitability, coherence….

  • NO right or wrong way for metaphor selection

  • Thorough understanding of problem domain is frequently missing


From task analysis to design
From task analysis to design models in transportation planning

  • Task analysis includes establishing of:

    • the actual users,

    • planning goals,

    • what information they need and they generate,

    • methods they use,

    • how do decision rules look like,

    • which workflows can be supported by computer use,

    • are the users more casual, occasional or rather daily users


Methodology
Methodology models in transportation planning


User task model
User Task Model models in transportation planning


User task model1
User Task Model models in transportation planning

Existence,Health and well-being

Judging of protectuable objects with respect to

nsensitivity

npre-strain

under consideration of environmental objectives and probable effects from the planned object

Overlay

Generation of a map with potential conflicts

Species and biotopes

Evaluation of inventories

Protectable Objects

Soil

Water

Climate

Scenery/ Recreation


Use case
Use Case models in transportation planning


Scenario
Scenario models in transportation planning

A transportation planer sends the plan with the intended route of the new road to her colleagues at the office for environmental protection in order to createamapthat shows potential conflicts of the object with biotopes. The office for environmental protection gets biotope data from the “LÖBF”. But before the office for environmental protection checkswhether it owns appropriate data itself. The resulting map shows fruit-meadow, hedges, shrubberies, natural monuments, forest, a small river, and out-dying plants and bird hotbeds. Then they superimpose the planned road


Analysis of scenario

intended route models in transportation planning

map creation

Conflicts map

Data check

fruit-meadow

Show

hedges

superimpose

shrubberies

natural monu.

Forest

River

Red-list species

bird hotbeds

Analysis of scenario

Objects

Services and Metaphors


Systems task model
Systems Task Model models in transportation planning


Conclusions
Conclusions models in transportation planning

  • UIs are needed that communicate within the users’ language

  • Metaphors can map between the users’ domain and the software

  • Metaphors establish an ontology of the user interface.

  • “2000 light-years from home” to find a metaphor like the “GIS desktop metaphor” for transportation planning.

  • Task analysis is the “point of departure” for user oriented metaphor.

  • The acid test for our approach is still pending .


Consequently
consequently... models in transportation planning

….transportation planners need

services

instead of just data and GIS


Data for planning processes
Data for planning processes models in transportation planning

  • Heterogenity of data

  • Example: Landesstraßenbedarfsplan

Biotopkataster, Bodendenkmäler, Bodenkarten, Geländemodelle, Flächennutzungspläne, Flora-Fauna-Habitatflächen, Gebietsentwicklungspläne, historische Anlage, hydrologische Karten, Landesentwicklungspläne, Naturschutzgebiete, Naturdenkmale, Straßenkarten, Topologische Karten, Wasserschutzgebiete,

Unfalldaten, Verkehrsmengen, Verkehrsprognosen, Straßenzustandswerte und Schadstoff- und Lärmbelastung

  • Different views of the same space


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