Research challenges from and for high yield growers
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Research Challenges from and for High Yield Growers. Scientists and farmers. International Conference on Precision Agriculture Minneapolis, MN July 26, 2004 Paul Fixen Potash & Phosphate Institute. Is this session appropriate for a precision agriculture conference?.

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Research challenges from and for high yield growers

Research Challenges from and for High Yield Growers

Scientists and

farmers

International Conference on Precision Agriculture

Minneapolis, MN

July 26, 2004

Paul Fixen

Potash & Phosphate Institute


Is this session appropriate for a precision agriculture conference

Is this session appropriate for a precision agriculture conference?

Precision in management gets more critical as yield potential climbs …

- agronomic reasons

- environmental reasons


Summary research challenges from high yield growers

Summary:Research challenges from high yield growers

  • A large gap exists between maximum attainable and typical yields

  • Observing the practices of high yield growers through the lens of scientific principles and controlled research can be revealing and lead to researchable questions for scientists and farmers

  • Modern technologies should facilitate narrowing the gap between attainable and typical yields


Exploitable yield potential in corn

*

F. Childs

Manchester, IA

20 bu/A/yr

H. Warsaw

Saybrook, IL

Exploitable yield potential in corn

Iowa example

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

1965-1991

2.0 bu/A/yr

*

IA Contest Winners

*

*

*

IA State Average

1.7 bu/A/yr


Top corn yields from researchers in 1982

Top corn yields from researchers in 1982

Dr. Roy Flannery

New Jersey

338 bu/A

Dr. Sterling Olsen

Colorado

332 bu/A


From saybrook il to manchester ia

From Saybrook, IL to Manchester, IA

Manchester, IA

Growing season precip: very similar at 27-28”

Growing degree Days: Manchester - 2980

Urbana – 3513

PropertyChildsWarsaw

Soil type Kenyon loam Parr silt loam

Taxonomy Typic Hapludolls Oxyaquic Argiudolls

Org. mat., % 5.5-6.0 4.5-5.8

pH 5.3-6.1 6.0

P1, ppm 126 (VH) 81 (VH)

K, ppm 374 (VH) 400 (VH)

Source: Childs – Murrell and Childs, 2000; Smith,2000;

Dobermann, 2002; Warsaw – PPI, 1986.

Saybrook, IL


From saybrook il to manchester ia soil om

Depth, In Childs Warsaw-light Warsaw-dark

Organic matter, %

0-6 5.6 5.8 4.5

6-12 4.5 4.9 3.9

12-18 3.0 3.2 4.3

18-24 --- 1.4 4.3

24-30 --- 0.8 3.8

30-36 --- 0.6 3.6

Source: Childs data – Dobermann, 2002.

Warsaw data – PPI, 1977.

From Saybrook, IL to Manchester, IA: Soil OM

Manchester, IA

Warsaw: 20 years of intensively managed continuous corn

Childs: 35 yearsof intensively managed continuous corn

Saybrook, IL


From saybrook il to manchester ia practices

From Saybrook, IL to Manchester, IA: Practices

Manchester, IA

Practice Childs Warsaw

Fall tillage Mini MP 14” deep CH 14” deep

Hybrid 2001-34M95; 2002-34N44 FS 854

Harv. Population 34,000 - 40,000 36,000

Row spacing 2001-30”; 2002-20” 28”

Manure High rates in past 20 T/A annually

Fall P2O5+K2O none 250+250

Fall N, lb/A 50(UAN) 45(DAP)

Preplant N 250(NH3 + sep. stab.) 300(UAN)+ 100(AS)

Starter, N+P2O5+K2O6+15+15+ACA 26+26+26

Popup, N+P2O5+K2O 4+9+4 none

Postplant N 50(UAN) 75(UR)

2.5-4’ tall N 50(UAN+Guardian) None

Fert N, lb/A 410(1.0 bu/lb) 546(0.7 bu/lb)

Other nutrients Boron Sulfur

Saybrook, IL


Research challenges which practices are critical and at what level

Research challenges: Which practices are critical and at what level?

  • Determination of site-specific attainable yield estimates (crop models)

  • Carbon cycling – crop and environmental impacts

  • Crop rotation vs monoculture

  • Tillage requirements … no till/strip till

  • Minimum N requirements, NH4+ vs NO3-, timing

  • Minimum soil test P and K requirements

  • Role of subsoil fertility, organic matter, etc. (P. Nowak)

  • Role of manure application

  • Role of secondary and micronutrients

  • Importance of starter fertilizer (0.5% P at V3-V4 for max kernel initiation/ear)


Research challenges from and for high yield growers

Better Crops

(2004, No. 1)

http://www.hybridmaize.unl.edu/


Real time yield prediction of current season

Real time yield prediction of current season

U. of Nebraska

EI Study - Lincoln

July 25, 2004

349

279

251


Soil test p and k requirements for very high yields classical theory

Soil Test P and K requirements for very high yields: Classical theory

  • For soil immobile nutrients like P or K, the STL vs % yield relationship should not vary with site yield potential unless plant population increases enough for adjacent roots to compete with each other for P and K (Bray, 1954; Bray, 1963).

  • Roots normally occupy less than 1% of soil volume (Barber, 1984) … an increase in size of the root system translates into a greater volume of soil P or K being available for uptake.

  • As long as the size of the root system increases proportionally with yield, a higher yielding crop should not need a higher P or K concentration at the root surface … should not require a higher soil test level.


Research challenges from and for high yield growers

Soil Test P and K requirements for very high yields: Conditions that could lead to higher requirements

  • Shoot growth increases that exceed root growth increases as yields climb

  • Redistribution of roots from the surface soil to a low P or K subsoil

    • soil factors (organic matter, pH, structure, etc.)

    • varietal factors – vertical vs lateral rooting tendencies

  • Each % increase in yield has greater economic value … want to be further up the response curve


Is subsoil fertility more important to today s high yield potential stay green hybrids

8 Weeks

Mature

36 Days

Source: Weaver, 1926

Is “subsoil” fertility more important to today’s high yield potential “stay-green” hybrids?

  • Probably taking up nutrients later in the season when surface soils are dryer

  • Higher % of active roots located deeper in profile

Is manure important

because it moves P

into subsoils?


Impact of hybrid on the influence of n rate on yield response to plant population

27K vs 38K

39K vs 46K

Impact of hybrid on the influence of N rate on yield response to plant population

Colorado

S.R. Olsen, reported by W. M. Stewart, 2000


Risk benefit evaluation of yield improvement phases

Risk/benefit evaluation of yield improvement phases


Summary research challenges from high yield growers1

Summary:Research challenges from high yield growers

  • A large gap exists between maximum attainable and typical yields

  • Observing the practices of high yield growers through the lens of scientific principles and controlled research can be revealing and lead to researchable questions for scientists and farmers.

  • Modern technologies should facilitate narrowing the gap between attainable and typical yields

    • Simulation models to help define attainable yields and researchable questions

    • Improved weather data and management tools

    • Site-specific technologies for greater efficiency

    • Biotechnology for yield protection … and building


Research challenges from high yield growers

Research Challenges from High Yield Growers

InfoAg 2003

Indianapolis, IN

August 1, 2003

Paul Fixen

Potash & Phosphate Institute


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