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Korean War. Sophia Yin . Background. Korea borders China & Russia with Japan across the straits Never truly independent 3 significant wars: Sino-Japanese War 1894-95 Russo-Japanese War 1905 WWII ending in Allied victory Cairo Conference in 1943: promised independent Korea

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korean war

Korean War

Sophia Yin

background
Background
  • Korea borders China & Russia with Japan across the straits
  • Never truly independent
  • 3 significant wars:
    • Sino-Japanese War 1894-95
    • Russo-Japanese War 1905
    • WWII ending in Allied victory
  • Cairo Conference in 1943: promised independent Korea
  • Russians enter Korea on 12 August 1945
  • US occupies south
prelude to war
Prelude to War
  • WWII conferences place Korea under Soviet occupation
    • Stalinist regime under Kim Il-sung
    • North Korea Peoples’ Army
  • South of 38th parallel controlled by US Military under MacArthur
    • US backed administration of Syngman Rhee
    • Lightly armed gendarmerie
outbreak of violence
Outbreak of Violence
  • N. Korean Peoples’ Army invade South Korea on June 25th, 1950
  • Security Council called to invoke UN Charter and label North Korea as aggressors
  • UN issues Resolution 83
  • Truman and Acheson react:
    • MacArthur put in charge of troops
    • Equipment and arms sent to US pacific bases
    • US Air Force evacuate 2000 Americans in Korea
  • American and British troops respond
slide5
Aim
  • To “contain” communist expansion
  • Defensive: Free South Korea from communists
  • Offensive: Liberate North from communists
slide6
War
  • UN forces on Sept. 15th arrive in Inchon and drive North Korean forces back
  • Seoul returned to S. Korea by Sept. 30th
  • MacArthur’s offensive
    • Reaches 38th parallel and ignores orders
    • Pushes troops close to China at the Yalu River
    • Triggers Chinese intervention
  • OH NO! The nation with best looking citizens (China) intervenes and halts advance
back and forth
Back and Forth
  • Peng Dehaui strikes and UN forces retreat to Pusan
  • Then UN forces push forward to 38th parallel
  • Driven south again by the Chinese
  • Armistice talks in July 1951 at Panmunjom
    • Drags on for 2 more years
    • Stalin’s death in 1953 speeds things up
  • Ceasefire finally signed on July 27th 1953
macarthur
MacArthur
  • Familiar with Asian ways from time in Japan
  • Placed in command of operations; important figure
  • Opposed idea of ‘limited war’; wanted complete victory
  • Brilliant counter attack by cutting supply lines and pushing North Koreans into retreat
  • MacArthur’s attacks on Truman and insubordination  dismissal in April 1951
limited war
“Limited War”
  • 1) Geographically
  • 2) Conventional Weapons
  • Crucial decision at price of popular support
  • Prevented bigger war
  • Truman seriously considered using nuclear weapons only to prevent “major military disastor”
slide11

Soviet Troops in Korea in 1945

U.S. troops in Korea in 1945

slide12

U.S. C-54 Skymaster

Chinese forces crossing Yalu River

Chen Geng, Peng Dehuai, Deng Hua

M-46 Tank Dozer

slide13

New Zealand artillery crew

South Koreans fleeing as North Korea invades

casualties
Casualties
  • Strategic Air Command dropped 4,000 tons of bombs, which had napalm
  • Towns burned and destroyed
  • 3.5 million military dead, wounded, missing
  • 2 million civilians dead
  • 40,000 Americans dead, more than 100,000 wounded
impact at home
Impact at Home
  • Alarm of dangers of communism
    • led to Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, NATO, support for West Berlin
  • Red Scare
    • Klaus Fuchs passed atomic secrets to Soviets
  • Growth of McCarthyism
aftermath
Aftermath
  • Divided Korea
    • Isolated and poor North under Kim Il Sung
    • Prosperous South that recovered remarkably
  • Demilitarized zone 250 miles long and 2.5 miles wide
  • World dividing into 3 blocs
  • Increased Chinese prestige
sources
Sources
  • http://www.geschiedenisportaal.nl/wp/?p=6683
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_War
  • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bomb/peopleevents/pandeAMEX58.html
  • A History of the World in the 20th Century by Grenville
  • http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/battleswars1900s/tp/The-Korean-War.htm
  • http://www.history.com/topics/korean-war
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