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Korean War. Sophia Yin . Background. Korea borders China & Russia with Japan across the straits Never truly independent 3 significant wars: Sino-Japanese War 1894-95 Russo-Japanese War 1905 WWII ending in Allied victory Cairo Conference in 1943: promised independent Korea

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Korean war

Korean War

Sophia Yin


Background
Background

  • Korea borders China & Russia with Japan across the straits

  • Never truly independent

  • 3 significant wars:

    • Sino-Japanese War 1894-95

    • Russo-Japanese War 1905

    • WWII ending in Allied victory

  • Cairo Conference in 1943: promised independent Korea

  • Russians enter Korea on 12 August 1945

  • US occupies south


Prelude to war
Prelude to War

  • WWII conferences place Korea under Soviet occupation

    • Stalinist regime under Kim Il-sung

    • North Korea Peoples’ Army

  • South of 38th parallel controlled by US Military under MacArthur

    • US backed administration of Syngman Rhee

    • Lightly armed gendarmerie


Outbreak of violence
Outbreak of Violence

  • N. Korean Peoples’ Army invade South Korea on June 25th, 1950

  • Security Council called to invoke UN Charter and label North Korea as aggressors

  • UN issues Resolution 83

  • Truman and Acheson react:

    • MacArthur put in charge of troops

    • Equipment and arms sent to US pacific bases

    • US Air Force evacuate 2000 Americans in Korea

  • American and British troops respond


Aim

  • To “contain” communist expansion

  • Defensive: Free South Korea from communists

  • Offensive: Liberate North from communists


War

  • UN forces on Sept. 15th arrive in Inchon and drive North Korean forces back

  • Seoul returned to S. Korea by Sept. 30th

  • MacArthur’s offensive

    • Reaches 38th parallel and ignores orders

    • Pushes troops close to China at the Yalu River

    • Triggers Chinese intervention

  • OH NO! The nation with best looking citizens (China) intervenes and halts advance


Back and forth
Back and Forth

  • Peng Dehaui strikes and UN forces retreat to Pusan

  • Then UN forces push forward to 38th parallel

  • Driven south again by the Chinese

  • Armistice talks in July 1951 at Panmunjom

    • Drags on for 2 more years

    • Stalin’s death in 1953 speeds things up

  • Ceasefire finally signed on July 27th 1953


Macarthur
MacArthur

  • Familiar with Asian ways from time in Japan

  • Placed in command of operations; important figure

  • Opposed idea of ‘limited war’; wanted complete victory

  • Brilliant counter attack by cutting supply lines and pushing North Koreans into retreat

  • MacArthur’s attacks on Truman and insubordination  dismissal in April 1951


Limited war
“Limited War”

  • 1) Geographically

  • 2) Conventional Weapons

  • Crucial decision at price of popular support

  • Prevented bigger war

  • Truman seriously considered using nuclear weapons only to prevent “major military disastor”


Soviet Troops in Korea in 1945

U.S. troops in Korea in 1945


U.S. C-54 Skymaster

Chinese forces crossing Yalu River

Chen Geng, Peng Dehuai, Deng Hua

M-46 Tank Dozer


New Zealand artillery crew

South Koreans fleeing as North Korea invades


Casualties
Casualties

  • Strategic Air Command dropped 4,000 tons of bombs, which had napalm

  • Towns burned and destroyed

  • 3.5 million military dead, wounded, missing

  • 2 million civilians dead

  • 40,000 Americans dead, more than 100,000 wounded


Impact at home
Impact at Home

  • Alarm of dangers of communism

    • led to Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, NATO, support for West Berlin

  • Red Scare

    • Klaus Fuchs passed atomic secrets to Soviets

  • Growth of McCarthyism


Aftermath
Aftermath

  • Divided Korea

    • Isolated and poor North under Kim Il Sung

    • Prosperous South that recovered remarkably

  • Demilitarized zone 250 miles long and 2.5 miles wide

  • World dividing into 3 blocs

  • Increased Chinese prestige



Sources
Sources

  • http://www.geschiedenisportaal.nl/wp/?p=6683

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_War

  • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bomb/peopleevents/pandeAMEX58.html

  • A History of the World in the 20th Century by Grenville

  • http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/battleswars1900s/tp/The-Korean-War.htm

  • http://www.history.com/topics/korean-war


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