Learning technology vision and reality
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Learning Technology: vision and reality. Tom Boyle Learning Technology Research Institute School of Informatics and Multimedia Technology. Introduction. Context Vision Pedagogically informed design pedagogical framework and principles case studies and examples Structure the domain

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Learning technology vision and reality

Learning Technology: vision and reality

Tom Boyle

Learning Technology Research Institute

School of Informatics and Multimedia Technology


Introduction

Introduction

  • Context

  • Vision

  • Pedagogically informed design

    • pedagogical framework and principles

    • case studies and examples

  • Structure the domain

  • Build deep and precise theoretical knowledge

  • Summary


  • Context

    Context

    • Revolutionary change

      • driven by developments in IT

    • Moore’s law

      • processor power doubles every 18 months

    • The IT revolution has a transformative effect

      • captured in phrases such as e-commerce and e-learning


    Tsunami waves of change

    Tsunami: waves of change

    • Microcomputers

      • - from the early eighties

    • Hypertext

      • - mid to late eighties

    • Multimedia

      • - early nineties

    • Internet and the Web

      • mid nineties

      • hypertext/hypermedia

      • electronic communications


    The reality challenge

    The ‘Reality’ challenge

    • A period of huge, technologically driven change

    • Challenge of of adapting to this revolutionary change and trying to control its shape

    • We are at a key, pivotal point

    • In education the success with which we adapt will shape the educational experience, for good or ill, of generations to come


    Getting it wrong

    Getting it wrong

    • The salutory story of the ‘querty’ keyboard

    • Huge pressure to adapt quickly

    • Produce sub-optimal solutions that become set as standards

    • Immediate ‘opportunistic’ adaptation to the new reality is essential, but

    • So is a sense of vision driven by deeper theoretical understanding


    Striving to get it right

    Striving to get it right

    • Need a vision of

      • where we are going

      • what we are engaged in

  • Develop a deeper theoretical understanding

    • driven by technological opportunity?

    • driven by pedagogy?

  • Apply this theoretical understanding at the level of design

    • a highly creative creative discipline

  • Build a discipline of ‘Learning technology’?


  • A vision of what we are engaged in

    A vision of what we are engaged in

    • At the highest level

    • Alan Kay and story of the printing press

    • Jerome Bruner

      • biology and culture

      • cultural artifacts and ratiocinative amplifiers

    • Kay - the interface as an amplifier of human abilities

    • Fourth class of amplifier

      - cultural amplifier of learning


    The challenge

    The Challenge

    • Stop chasing the technology (all of the time)

    • Pedagogical based drive

      • to guide the creative exploitation of the technology

      • ‘interactive’ design

    • Develop a deep theoretical base

    • Build an effective discipline of ‘learning technology’


    Pedagogy

    Pedagogy

    • Instructional systems design

    • Formal didactic method of developing computer based ‘teaching’ systems

      • underpinning traditional CBT (computer based training)

      • the computer as teaching machine

  • Constructivism

  • The computer not as a teaching machine but as a learning environment


  • Constructivism

    Constructivism?

    • The person as a constructor of their knowledge of the world

    • Rejection of a simple transmission model of learning

    • Piaget and Vygotsky

    • Translated as principles for educational design

    • Variants of constructivism


    The psychological base

    The Psychological Base

    • Piaget

      • The person as a constructor of their knowledge of the world

    • Vygotsky

      • the social dimension

    • Modern research in language and cognitive development

      • Context and scaffolding


    Principles of constructivism

    Principles of Constructivism

    • Rich user-centred interaction

      e.g. active discovery versus formal instruction

    • Use of authentic problem situations

      • use of multimedia

    • Collaborative learning

      • peer to peer (e.g. Linn 1996)

      • tutor/student (Cognitive Apprenticeship)

    • Deep learning – experience of and with

      the knowledge construction process


    Constructivist learning environments

    Constructivist Learning Environments

    • Virtual Clayoquot

    • CaBLE in management training

      • active goal driven

      • the use of ‘war stories’

  • The Virtual Factory

  • Lake Nardoo

  • Similar learning principles mapped on to a variety of

    media


  • Learning to program

    Learning to program

    • A highly structured problem domain

    • Teaching through lectures, textbooks and practice

    • the CORE - guided discovery learning approach

    • Applying ideas from natural language acquisition

    • CLEM - CORE Learning Environment for Modula-2


    Learning technology vision and reality

    CLEM

    • CLEM - CORE Learning Environment for Modula-2

    • Guided discovery approach - based on natural language acquisition

    • Example (micro-problem) based learning

    • Active learning - where students construct for themselves the rules of the language

    • Hypertext tool environment (Guide)


    Use and evaluation of clem

    Use and Evaluation of CLEM

    • 240 students in year 1

    • Observation - Questionnaire - Focus groups

    • Module results

    • Reductions in failure rate of between 32% to 47%

    • Interpreting results


    Other core systems

    Other CORE systems

    DOVE

    Dynamic

    Observation in

    Virtual

    Environments


    Vircom

    VirCom

    Build your own virtual computer


    Wider applicability

    Wider applicability

    Screen-to-Screen

    multimedia decision support system


    The domain layers of impact

    The domain: layers of impact

    • Dealing with the complexity of the domain

    • Re-usability and extendibility

    • Theoretical analysis

    • Layering the problem space


    Learning technology vision and reality

    Educational Use

    Resources

    Partitioning the problem space

    • We need to articulate the nature of the problem space

    • Student centred/resource based learning

    • Resource layer and pedagogical layer

    • Fits with hypertext paradigm (Hall)


    Learning technology vision and reality

    Courseware

    Classware

    Resources

    Layering the problem space


    Summary

    Summary

    • Context

    • A vision - a fourth class of amplifiers - cultural amplifiers of learning

    • Pedagogically informed design

    • Layering the problem space

    • The need for theory-guided deep design


    Learning technology vision and reality

    ‘In dreams begins responsibility’

    W. B Yeats


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