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David’s Story “ Born to Fail - The Perfect Storm ” Neighbourhood Renewal– Lisburn February 2011. DCS John Carnochan QPM FFPH Scottish Violence Reduction Unit. The Plan. Violence Reduction – It’s not easy Public Health – A useful Lens Early Years – Could it be Magic ?

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David’s Story

“Born to Fail -The Perfect Storm”

Neighbourhood Renewal– Lisburn February 2011

DCS John Carnochan QPM FFPH

Scottish Violence Reduction Unit


The plan
The Plan

  • Violence Reduction – It’s not easy

  • Public Health – A useful Lens

  • Early Years – Could it be Magic ?

  • David’s Story – Knew that would happen!!

  • The Evidence – Too much ?

  • The Challenges – To be Overcome


The challenges we face converge, intertwine and often remain largely beyond our understanding. Most of us suspect that the “experts” don’t really know what’s going on and that as a species we’ve released forces that are neither managed nor manageable.”

Thomas Homer-Dixon

(Paper by Prof Phil Hanlon University of Glasgow 2009


Dispelling some myths
Dispelling some myths

First- We can police our way out of this

Second - Victims and offenders are separate groups

Finally – There is a single solution and we know what it is



The what
The WHAT

“Interpersonal violence – violence between individuals in families and communities – is a public health problem.”

Etienne Krug

Director

Department of Injuries and Violence Prevention

World health Organisation

2004


The HOW

Identify risk / protectivefactors

Research why it occurs

Surveillance

Systematic data collection

Develop and evaluate interventions

Find out what works.

Implement

Scale up and evaluate effective programmes



Understand causes of violence
Understand Causes of Violence

Two components to Violence:

The propensity to be violent - personalfactors

The triggers of violence - social factors

The Wave Report 2005 “Violence and what to do about it”


Farrington D.P. (2003). Key results from the first 40 years of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development,.Realising Britain’s Potential: Future Strategic Challenges for Britain. The Strategy Unit February 2008.


Deprivation of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development,.


What do employers want
What do Employers of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development,.Want ?

Planning and organising

Customer handling

Problem solving

Team working

Oral communication

Other technical and practical skills

Written communication

Basic computer literacy / using IT

Strategic management

Advanced IT or software

Using numbers

Literacy

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

Percentage of Employers reporting an employee skill gap

Future Skills Bar Chart. See Future Skills Scotland Website, Employer Survey 2004, p27, fig 15.


Rates of Return to Human Capital of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development,.

Higher Education

Secondary

Primary

Preschool


Early Intervention: Insuring for a better future. of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development,.

Which one do we insure against future harm?

Which one do we assess on an annual basis?

Which one do we assess the person in control?

Which one do we ban unfit owners/users?

Which one is governed by most legislation?

Which one is the most important ?


Ecological model the frame
Ecological Model = of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development,.The Frame

Societal

Community

Relationship

Individual

  • Lack of communication skills

  • Poor behavioural control

  • Impulsiveness

  • Aggressive behaviour

  • Lack of skills to deal with conflict

  • Inability to judge risk

  • Lack of “life” skills

  • Exclusion from Services/Schools

  • Nutrition Diet Health

  • Alcohol

  • Lack of employment opportunities

  • Parenting

  • Lack of knowledge

  • Friends that engage in violence

  • Prevalence of gang culture

  • Violent families – siblings/parents

  • Lack of significant adults/positive role model

  • Lack of punishment for pre cursor offences – knife carrying

  • Lack of visible swift justice

  • Links to deprivation

  • Scottishness

  • Inequality

  • Cultural norms

  • Legitimisation of violence

  • Access to and use of alcohol

  • Lack of aspiration

  • Dependancy

  • Tolerance


Seven of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development,. main strategies to prevent violence


Safe stable and nurturing relationships
Safe stable and nurturing relationships of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development,.

Parenting programmes

Information & support for parents

Parent & child programmes

Preschool education, family support, child health services etc.

Social support groups

e.g. peer support for parents

Media interventions

e.g. raise awareness &

knowledge of child maltreatment

Early, primary prevention to avoid the development of violence such as child abuse and childhood aggression

Some strong evidence that parenting programmes and parent and child programmes can reduce child maltreatment and problem/aggressive behaviours in youth


Life skills
Life skills of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development,.

Preschool enrichment

Child skills, parent programmes

Social development training

Conflict resolution, perspective taking, anger management.

Academic enrichment

Study & recreation out of school

Educational incentives

E.g. finance for completing school

Vocational Training

Providing skills to find work

Cognitive, emotional, interpersonal & social skills to enable youth to deal with the challenges of everyday life

Some strong evidence that preschool enrichment and social development programmes can reduce aggression and improve social skills, particularly in at-risk youth


Challenges

Vision of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development,.

Strategy

Policy

Operating Procedure

Guidance

People

Attitudes

Challenges

Difficult

Difficult


Northern ireland s children and young people
Northern Ireland’s Children and Young People of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development,.

  • Healthy

  • Enjoying, learning and achieving

  • Living in safety and with stability

  • Experiencing economic and

    environmental well-being

  • Contributing positively to community

    and society and

  • Living in a society which Respects

    their rights.


Purpose of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development,.

Government Economic Strategy

National Outcomes

NATIONAL PERFORMANCE

SOAs

LIFE JOURNEY

birth

18

10

16

Valuing our Young People

Early Years Framework

More Choices More Chances

Curriculum for Excellence

GIRFEC

Promoting Positive Outcomes (ASB)

YJ Framework

NATIONAL POLICIES

Road to Recovery (Drugs)

Alcohol framework

Equally Well (Health Inequalities)

Achieving our Potential (Poverty)


Challenges1
Challenges of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development,.

  • Wicked problem – Leadersnot technicians

  • Partnership in action – policy and Practice

  • Outcomesnot processes

  • Public health inspired response

    • Interdisciplinary - Collaboration

    • Evidence-led - problem profile – outcome evaluation

    • Preventionfocused - earlier, more effective intervention – further upstream

    • Whole population - ecological model


Challenges of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development,.

  • Joining up

    • Coalition – Collaboration - Consensus - health, education, community….

    • Dilution - everyone’s a partner; no-one’s Responsible

    • Outcomes – clear- defined – Shared

    • Scaling up

    • Fragmented delivery landscape

    • Territorialism – professional Gangs

    • Lack of robust outcome Evaluation

    • Resources – state of public finances – Opportunity?

    • Wising up

    • Leadership – out of the comfort zone – Adaptive – Brave – Resilient


It has to be about
It has to be about of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development,.

Action that is informed by evidence and designed to deliver clear meaningful Outcomes

Researchthat is informed by and connected to practice

Clear, consistent, Collaborative policy that hits the pavement.


“There is nothing more difficult to carryout, nor more doubtful of success, nor more dangerous to conduct than to initiate a new order of things. For the reformer has enemies in all who profit by the old order and only lukewarm defenders in all those who profit by the new order”

Machiavelli, The Prince


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