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Convert 2.3 µm into meters.

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- 23000000 m
- 2300 m
- .0023 m
- .0000023 m

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Optics

- Nanometer (nm) = .000000001 m = 10-9 m
- Angstrom (Å) = .0000000001 m = 10-10 m

- A large number of equally spaced parallel slits is called a diffraction grating.
- A diffraction grating can be thought of as an optical component that has tiny grooves cut into it. The grooves are cut so small that their measurements approach the wave length of light.

- A diffraction grating splits a plane wave into a number of subsidiary waves which can be brought together to form an interference pattern.

If you now send the light from the two openings onto a screen, an interference pattern appears, due to differing path lengths from each source

• we have constructive interference if paths differ by any number of full wavelengths

• destructive interference if difference is half a wavelength longer or shorter

Constructive interference

Constructive interference

Destructive interference

Geometry

Path length difference

Constructive interference

Destructive interference

d (sinq) = m l

d = grating spacing

q = angle of deviation

m = order of magnitude

l = wavelength

X

θ

θ

Y

d

θ

Path difference

= d sin θ

- If d is the slit spacing then the path difference between the light rays X and Y = d sin θ.
- For principal maxima,
d sin θ = mλ.

- The closer the slits, the more widely spaced are the diffracted beams.
- The longer the wavelength of light used, the more widely spaced are the diffracted beams.

Turntable

Diffraction grating

Collimator C

θ

Light

source

Telescope T

Eyepiece

Achromatic lenses

Eye

Cross-wire

- A spectrometer is a device to measure wavelengths of light accurately using diffraction grating to separate.

- Diffraction grating placed in front of a methane air flame

- Spectrum of a star
- - Procyon

Monochromatic Light from a Helium-neon laser (λ =632.8 nm (10-9m)) shines on a diffraction grating that contains 150,500 lines/m. What is the grating separation?

- 6.328 x 10-7 m
- 1.58 106 m
- 1.505 x 105 m
- 6.64 x 10-6 m

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Monochromatic Light from a Helium-neon laser (λ =632.8 nm (10-9m)) shines on a diffraction grating that contains 150,500 lines/m). What is the angle of the first order maxima (m=1)?

- 3.2 degrees
- 5.5 degrees
- 6.7 degrees
- 8.5 degrees

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Monochromatic Light from a Helium-neon laser (λ =632.8 nm (10-9m)) shines on a diffraction grating that contains 150,500 lines/m). What is the angle of the second-order maxima (m=2)?

- 13.12 degrees
- 11.25 degrees
- 10.98 degrees
- 9.46 degrees

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- blue
- violet
- white
- red

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- The distance decreases
- The distance increases
- The distance stays the same
- The distance goes to zero

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Normal

- Incoming and Reflected angles are equal
- Normal is perpendicular to surface at point of reflection

Planar

“flat” mirrors

Spherical

Concave

Convex

Center of Curvature (C)

Principle Axis

Focal Point (F)

F

- Image location can be predicted with ray diagrams
- All you need to do is draw the three Principle Rays to determine the location, orientation, and size of the image.

Draw this!!!!

Draw a ray coming from the top of the object, parallel to the axis. It reflects through the focal point.

Incident ray is through focal point, reflects parallel to axis.

Incident ray is through center of curvature, reflects straight back.

See where the 3 rays converge? That’s the location of the image.

For this situation, the image is smaller and inverted.

Image location can be predicted with ray diagrams

Image may appear in front of the mirror – real image

Real images can be seen reflected onto a sheet of paper.

Image may appear behind the mirror – virtual image

Virtual images cannot be seen reflected onto a sheet of paper.

- The virtual image in a plane mirror will appear as far from the mirror as the object, so if you stand 2 m in front of the mirror, your reflection appears to be 4m away from you.

Simple Camera

Virtual image

Real image

- real
- fake
- virtual
- imaginary

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Thicker in the center than edges.

- Lens that converges (brings together) light rays.
- Forms real images and virtual images depending on position of the object

The Magnifier

- Lenses that are thicker at the edges and thinner in the center.
- Diverges light rays
- All images areupright and reduced.

The De-Magnifier

•

•

•

•

F

2F

2F

F

•

•

•

•

F

2F

2F

F

- Rays traveling parallel to the principal axis of a convex lens will refract toward the focus.
- Rays traveling directly through the center of a convex lens will leave the lens traveling in the exact same direction.

•

•

•

•

F

2F

2F

F

Rays traveling from the focus will refract parallel to the principal axis.

image

The image formed when an object is placed beyond 2F is located behind the lens between F and 2F. It is a real, inverted image which is smaller than the object itself.

object

•

•

•

•

F

2F

2F

F

Equations:*

* Refer to your Optics Reference Sheet

What is the focal length of the mirror?

What is the center length of the circle?

What is the magnification factor of the image?

If the object has a height of 5 cm, what is the height of the image?

State the relative size (bigger/smaller), orientation (upright/inverted), and type (real/virtual) for the image that is produced.