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Symmetry and Its Violation -unifying concept of universe-

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Presentation Transcript

G

f =

r2

Natural ScienceGeneralising and

making physical laws

Observation

gmngmn

Postulating

and

predicting

phenomena

Observation

Extracting more

abstract concept

Geometrical Symmetries

Translation

Reflection

(parity)

Rotation

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

continuous

discrete

continuous

Goal of Elementary Particle Physics

To look for

1) the ultimate building blocks of the world

2) forces between them

3) underlying dynamics

BuildingForceUnderlyingblocksdynamics

sun and planets gravitation Newton’s laws of motion

Atomic System

BuildingForceUnderlyingblocksdynamics

electron and electromagnetic Quantum nucleus interaction Mechanics (relativistic)

Examplesq

q

g

g

W

n

e

q

q

q

q

q

e

e

Elementary Particle System

BuildingForceUnderlyingblocksdynamics

quarks and electromagnetic Quantum leptons (photon: g) Field + weak Theory anti-quarks and (W, Z0) anti-leptons strong (gluon: g)

The Standard Model

rotation and/or translation symmetries

in

four-dimensional real space (t, x, y, z)

or

some “internal” space

Properties of

building blocks, forces and underlying dynamics

Parity: (x, y, z) (-x, -y, -z)

two more to come

Charge conjugation: particle antiparticle

Time reversal: t -t

What about discrete symmetries?No quantum field theory without CPT symmetry

neutrino

connected by

CP

transformation

Right-handed

Left-handed

particle world

antiparticle world

CP Violation

We know two examples which shows

matter world anti-matter world.

CP symmetry is violated !!

big bang

anti-matter

amount of matter

= amount ofanti-matter

our universe

only with matter

Evolution of UniverseCP violation

CP violation

CPLEAR Experiment (1999)neutral kaon

decay time distribution

anti-neutral kaon

decay time distribution

New Physics

q

q

W

X

complex coupling constant

complex coupling constant

q

q

Mechanism of CP ViolationCP transformation containscomplex conjugation:

e-iH t eiH*t

i.e. H* HCP violation

new physics beyond the Standard Model.

Primary Goal of LHCbTo understand better the origin of CP violation.

No Röntgen, no X ray picture.

No Quantum Mechanics, no modern electronics

- understanding the most fundamental nature of material is one of the most important cultural activities.

- elementary particles are one of the basic concepts of modern physics which should be known by everybody.

Everybody knows that the earth is round!

FAQWhy do we do basic research?

- applied research will achieve “state of art”.- basic research opens new horizon.

Why do we do/teach particle physics?

- experiments demands state of art technology:

spin-off.

- students learn how to work in an international collaboration with a given time scale and still to remain creative.

Why do we do experimental particle physics?

We are all curious to know

how we are here!

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