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Lausanne, 8 February 2000. Symmetry and Its Violation -unifying concept of universe-. Tatsuya Nakada. Nature. - regular pattern - symmetry - …. Nature. Observation. Recognition. Concept of Symmetry. - regular pattern - symmetry - …. Concept. Realisation. Creating arts. m 1 m 2.

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Presentation Transcript
concept of symmetry

- regular pattern

- symmetry

- …

Nature

Observation

Recognition

Concept of Symmetry
creating arts

- regular pattern

- symmetry

- …

Concept

Realisation

Creating arts
natural science

m1m2

G

f =

r2

Natural Science

Generalising and

making physical laws

Observation

gmngmn

Postulating

and

predicting

phenomena

Observation

Extracting more

abstract concept

geometrical symmetries
Geometrical Symmetries

Translation

Reflection

(parity)

Rotation

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

continuous

discrete

continuous

spontaneous breakdown of rotational symmetry
Spontaneous Breakdown of Rotational Symmetry

before dinner

once dinner starts

violation of l r symmetry

10%

90%

World  Mirror World

(parity violation)

Violation of L-R Symmetry

World

Mirror World

90%

10%

goal of elementary particle physics
Goal of Elementary Particle Physics

To look for

1) the ultimate building blocks of the world

2) forces between them

3) underlying dynamics

examples

Solar System

BuildingForceUnderlyingblocksdynamics

sun and planets gravitation Newton’s laws of motion

Atomic System

BuildingForceUnderlyingblocksdynamics

electron and electromagnetic Quantum nucleus interaction Mechanics (relativistic)

Examples
slide19

q

q

q

g

g

W

n

e

q

q

q

q

q

e

e

Elementary Particle System

BuildingForceUnderlyingblocksdynamics

quarks and electromagnetic Quantum leptons (photon: g) Field + weak Theory anti-quarks and (W, Z0) anti-leptons strong (gluon: g)

The Standard Model

slide20

can be described by

rotation and/or translation symmetries

in

four-dimensional real space (t, x, y, z)

or

some “internal” space

Properties of

building blocks, forces and underlying dynamics

what about discrete symmetries

we saw already

Parity: (x, y, z)  (-x, -y, -z)

two more to come

Charge conjugation: particle  antiparticle

Time reversal: t -t

What about discrete symmetries?

No quantum field theory without CPT symmetry

slide22

antineutrino

neutrino

connected by

CP

transformation

Right-handed

Left-handed

particle world

antiparticle world

cp violation
CP Violation

We know two examples which shows

matter world  anti-matter world.

CP symmetry is violated !!

evolution of universe

matter

big bang

anti-matter

amount of matter

= amount ofanti-matter

our universe

only with matter

Evolution of Universe

CP violation

cplear experiment 1999

CP violation

CPLEAR Experiment (1999)

neutral kaon

decay time distribution

anti-neutral kaon

decay time distribution

problem

LHCb experiment will look for CP violation beyond the Standard Model in the particle worldusing B-mesons.

Problem!!

CP violation in

the kaon decays

can

be explained by

the Standard Model.

CP violation in

the universe

cannot

be explained by

the Standard Model.

mechanism of cp violation

Standard Model

New Physics

q

q

W

X

complex coupling constant

complex coupling constant

q

q

Mechanism of CP Violation

CP transformation containscomplex conjugation:

e-iH t eiH*t

i.e. H*  HCP violation

at lhc

p

7 TeV=2.710-7 cal1g of those p’s = 20 daysof US energy consumption

p

7 TeV

14 TeV

mini bang

LHCb detector

At LHC

~100 times more

B mesons then before

slide33

USA

Brazil

Ukraine

Finland

France

UK

Switzerland

Germany

Italy

Poland

PRC

Netherlands

Romania

Russia

Spain

The LHCb Experiment

Calorimeters

LHCb

Tracker

Shieldingplate

Yoke

Coil

RICH-1

RICH-2

Moun

Vertex

an event

LHCb event

seen by the vertex detector

(Lausanne participation)

An Event
primary goal of lhcb

Possibly discovering

new physics beyond the Standard Model.

Primary Goal of LHCb

To understand better the origin of CP violation.

slide36

No Maxwell, no radio nor TV.

No Röntgen, no X ray picture.

No Quantum Mechanics, no modern electronics

- understanding the most fundamental nature of material is one of the most important cultural activities.

- elementary particles are one of the basic concepts of modern physics which should be known by everybody.

Everybody knows that the earth is round!

FAQ

Why do we do basic research?

- applied research will achieve “state of art”.- basic research opens new horizon.

Why do we do/teach particle physics?

slide37

- experiments demands state of art technology:

 spin-off.

- students learn how to work in an international collaboration with a given time scale and still to remain creative.

Why do we do experimental particle physics?

We are all curious to know

how we are here!

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