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Mountain Building. Faults. A fault is a fracture or in the Earth’s crust that occurs when stress is applied too quickly Area where Earthquakes occur Reverse Normal Strike Slip. Reverse Faults. Reverse faults occur as a result of compression Hanging Wall-The upper part of fault

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faults
Faults
  • A fault is a fracture or in the Earth’s crust that occurs when stress is applied too quickly
  • Area where Earthquakes occur
    • Reverse
    • Normal
    • Strike Slip
reverse faults
Reverse Faults
  • Reverse faults occur as a result of compression
    • Hanging Wall-The upper part of fault
    • Footwall-The lower part of a fault
normal faults
Normal Faults
  • Normal faults occur as a result of tension
    • 2 pieces of crust are pulled apart
strike slip faults
Strike Slip Faults
  • Strike slip faults occur as a result of shear stress
    • 2 pieces of lithosphere are pulled passed each other
    • San Andreas Fault (San Francisco)
orogenies
Orogenies
  • An orogeny is a process that forms mountains
  • Alleghanian Orogeny
    • Formed the Appalachians, Paleozoic
ocean ridge mountains
Ocean Ridge Mountains

Ocean ridge mountains form when plates diverge and magma rises to the surface

uplifted mountains
Uplifted Mountains
  • Uplifted mountains form when large regions of Earth have been slowly forced upward as a unit
fault block mountain
Fault Block Mountain
  • A fault block mountain forms when large pieces of crust are tilted, uplifted or dropped downward between large faults
geologic time scale
Geologic Time Scale
  • The geologic time scale is a record of Earth’s History
    • The Earth is 4.6 Billion Years Old
    • The time scale is divided into different subdivision
      • Orogenesis - general term for the processes that produce mountains
      • Orogeny-Mountain building event (plate collision)
north carolina geologic events
North Carolina Geologic Events
  • 3.8 Bya-First life forms evolved
    • Single celled organisms
  • 3.5 Bya-The first continents began to form
    • Convection began due to unequal heating of the mantle (plate tectonics)
north carolina geologic events1
North Carolina Geologic Events
  • 1.7 Bya- Present day North Carolina formed
  • 1.3 Bya-The first mountains of North Carolina formed
    • Grenville mountains (no longer exist due to erosion)
    • Formed by Grenville Orogeny
    • Oldest rocks of NC formed. Presently exposed in the Appalachian Mountains
north carolina geologic events2
North Carolina Geologic Events
  • 1 Bya-First multicellular organisms
  • 620 mya-North Carolina was pulled apart by tectonic forces
    • Volcanoes developed along NC-VA border
north carolina geologic events3
North Carolina Geologic Events
  • 750-540 mya-North America and Europe/ Africa moved towards each other
    • Formed Kings Mountain Belt
    • Formed first supercontinent Rodinia
    • Grenville orogeny
  • 542 mya-”Cambrian Explosion” – Major diversification of life
    • First vertebrates
    • North Carolina was underwater
slide17

750 - 540 MYA

Supercontinent of Rodinia

(Grenville Orogeny)

north carolina geologic events4
North Carolina Geologic Events
  • 496-440 mya-Taconic Orogeny: The coastline of present day Appalachian Mountains collided with Iapetus Plate (Oceanic Plate)
    • Formed volcanic mountains in present day North Carolina
north carolina geologic events5
North Carolina Geologic Events
  • Acadian Orogeny(400-325 mya): A continent called Avalonia collided with present day North America
    • Continued the formation of the Appalachian mountains.
    • Also lead to the formation of Pangaea
north carolina geologic events6
North Carolina Geologic Events
  • 359 mya-Wetland forests dominated the Appalachian area
    • The decayed organic matter from the trees eventually lead to coal that is currently mined today
alleghanian orogeny
Alleghanian Orogeny
  • AlleghanianOrogeny(325-260 mya): Africa collided with North America.
    • Resulted in the formation of the Appalachian Mountains
    • Pangaea was fully assembled
north carolina geologic events7
North Carolina Geologic Events
  • After the formation of Pangaea, the Appalachian Mountains were near the center of Pangaea
    • Central Pangaea Mountains Extended into what is now Scotland and Morocco
north carolina geologic events8
North Carolina Geologic Events
  • 251 mya-Appalachians began to erode
    • Wind and rain  Sediment was carried to lower lying land or sea
    • Pangaea was breaking up
  • 200 mya-As Pangaea separated the Atlantic Ocean formed
    • Outer margin became the outer banks
north carolina geologic events9
North Carolina Geologic Events
  • 145 mya-65 mya: Coastal Plains were underwater but sea level began to drop
    • Dinosaurs went extinct
    • 65 mya: Coastal plains were above water
  • 5 mya-Blue Ridge and Piedmont were as they are today
north carolina geologic events10
North Carolina Geologic Events
  • 1.7 mya-”Ice Age” began. Sea level in North Carolina fell
    • There is present day evidence in the Coastal Plains
  • 18,000 years ago – Glaciers melted
  • 10,000-15,000-North Carolina’s forests began to develop
  • 9,000 BC-Human civilization began
warm up monday september 30th
Warm upMonday September 30th
  • Complete the Earth Science Word Search in 12 min for a science ticket
warm up tuesday october 1st
Warm upTuesday October 1st
  • Name the 3 types of faults
  • What orogeny created the Appalachian Mts?
  • What type of mountains are formed when large pieces of crust are tilted, uplifted or dropped downward
birth of the mountains reading activity
Birth of the Mountains Reading Activity
  • Read the handout titled “Birth of Mountains”.
  • On a separate sheet of paper, in complete sentences, write down the 2 most important facts that you learned from each of the following sections….

a. Introduction

b. Reading the Rocks

c. A Supercontinent Forms

d. The Supercontinent Breaks Up

e. Continental Collisions

f. Carving the Mountains

warm up wednesday october 2nd
Warm upWednesday October 2nd
  • Look over your NC Earth History notes from yesterday. Pop quiz to follow!!
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