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Magnetism. Chapters 36 & 37. Magnetism. A brief history Lodestones were found in Greece some 2000 years ago. The Chinese later used them for navigating ships. In the 18 th century, Charles Coulomb conducted a study of the forces between lodestones. Magnetism. A brief history:

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Magnetism

Magnetism

Chapters 36 & 37


Magnetism1
Magnetism

A brief history

Lodestones were found in Greece some 2000 years ago.

The Chinese later used them for navigating ships.

In the 18th century, Charles Coulomb conducted a study of the forces between lodestones.


Magnetism2
Magnetism

A brief history:

Until early 19th century, electricity and magnetism were considered to be separate fields.

Hans Christian Oersted, in 1820, discovered a relationship between the two during a classroom demonstration.

This led to new technology that would bring electric power, radio and television.


Magnetic poles
Magnetic Poles

Magnets apply forces on each other similar to charges.

Magnets can attract and repel each other.

Magnets have poles that are the regions in the magnet that apply forces.

Magnetic poles are not positive and negative, but rather North and South.


Magnetic poles1
Magnetic Poles

There is a rule when it comes to the poles of magnets:

Like poles repel; opposite poles attract.


Magnetic poles2
Magnetic Poles

What would happen if you were to cut a bar magnet in half?


Magnetic field
Magnetic Field

Every magnet produces a magnetic field.

A magnet’s magnetic field is similar to a planet’s gravitational field.

When another magnet is near, or even a compass, it will lie in a line with the magnetic field.

Similarly, iron filings become tiny bar magnets in the presence of a magnetic field.


Magnetic field1
Magnetic Field

What did we learn in our lab about the shape of a magnetic field around a bar magnet?


Magnetic field2
Magnetic Field

What did we learn about the direction of the magnetic field lines around a bar magnet?

Field lines go out from the North and into the South.


Magnetic field3
Magnetic Field

What would happen to the magnetic fields of two like poles placed next to each other?

N N


Magnetic field4
Magnetic Field

What would happen to the magnetic fields of two like poles placed next to each other?

N N


Magnetic field5
Magnetic Field

What would happen to the magnetic fields of two opposite poles placed next to each other?

N S


Magnetic field6
Magnetic Field

What would happen to the magnetic fields of two opposite poles placed next to each other?

N S


Magnetic field7
Magnetic Field

What can you tell about the two magnets in each of these situations?


Earth s magnetic field
Earth’s Magnetic Field

This is a drawing of Earth’s magnetic field and its direction. What do you notice?

So which magnetic pole is which?


Magnetic domains

Magnetic domains = a microscopic cluster of atoms with their magnetic fields aligned.

Magnetic Domains


Magnetic domains1
Magnetic Domains magnetic fields aligned.

In our lab yesterday, how were you able to pick up the paperclips with the nail?

What did the magnet do to the nail?

Induced magnetism = metals (particularly iron) exhibiting magnetic properties due to contact with another magnet.


Electric current magnetic field
Electric Current & Magnetic Field magnetic fields aligned.

Remember Oersted? What did he discover during a classroom presentation?

A moving charge/current produces a magnetic field, deflecting a compass.

No current: Current:


Electromagnetism
Electromagnetism magnetic fields aligned.

I

  • First Right-Hand Rule

    • Thumb points in direction of current

    • Fingers follow magnetic field lines (direction of magnetic field)

I


Electric current magnetic field1
Electric Current & Magnetic Field magnetic fields aligned.

These are examples of a current-carrying wire, a current-carrying loop and a coil of loops.


Electric current magnetic field2
Electric Current & Magnetic Field magnetic fields aligned.

If a current-carrying wire is bent into a loop, the magnetic field lines bunch up. If you add another loop and another, the magnetic field becomes more and more concentrated. This coil is called an electromagnet.


Electromagnetism1
Electromagnetism magnetic fields aligned.

  • What about a coil of wire?

    • The RHR still applies!

I


Electromagnets
Electromagnets magnetic fields aligned.

  • Coil has a field like any permanent magnet with N and S poles

  • Advantage: can be turned off and on


Electromagnets1
Electromagnets magnetic fields aligned.

  • 2nd Right-Hand Rule

    • Determine magnetic field of electromagnets

    • Fingers follow current as it curls in the coil

    • Thumb points in direction of N pole


Magnetic force
Magnetic Force magnetic fields aligned.

A magnetic field will also apply a force on a current-carrying wire.

To determine direction, we use the Right Hand Rule.


Forces caused by magnetic fields
Forces caused by Magnetic Fields magnetic fields aligned.

  • Vectors

  • Perpendicular to magnetic field lines and current


Forces caused by magnetic fields1
Forces caused by Magnetic Fields magnetic fields aligned.

  • 3rd Right-Hand Rule

    • Determine direction of Force on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field

I

N

S


Magnetic force1
Magnetic Force magnetic fields aligned.

Let’s try another one…

Thumb points in direction of current.

Fingers point in direction of magnetic field.

Palm points in direction of force.


Magnetic force2
Magnetic Force magnetic fields aligned.

Give this one a try:

I

S

N

Force: into the page


Magnetic force3
Magnetic Force magnetic fields aligned.

N

S

I

Force: out of the page


Magnetic force4
Magnetic Force magnetic fields aligned.

N

S

X

I

Force: down


Forces caused by magnetic fields2
Forces caused by Magnetic Fields magnetic fields aligned.

  • F = BIL

    • B = strength of magnetic field

    • I = current in the wire

    • L = length of wire in magnetic field

    • We know how to measure F, I and L, but not B so instead we use…


Forces caused by magnetic fields3
Forces caused by Magnetic Fields magnetic fields aligned.

  • B = F / (IL)

    • Magnetic induction – strength of the magnetic field

      • Units: Tesla (T)

      • 1 T is very strong

      • Most lab magnets are 0.01 T

      • Earth’s magnetic field is 5 X 10-5 T


A simple dc motor
A Simple DC Motor magnetic fields aligned.


A simple dc motor1
A Simple DC Motor magnetic fields aligned.


Important definitions
Important Definitions magnetic fields aligned.

  • Magnetic flux

    • Number of magnetic field lines passing through a surface


Electromagnetic induction

Faraday discovered that electric current could be produced in a wire simply by moving a magnet in and out of a coil of the wire.

This is called electromagnetic induction.

Electromagnetic Induction


Electromagnetic induction1
Electromagnetic Induction in a wire simply by moving a magnet in and out of a coil of the wire.

The greater the number of loops of wire that move in a magnetic field, the greater the induced voltage and the greater the current in the wire.


Magnetic force5
Magnetic Force in a wire simply by moving a magnet in and out of a coil of the wire.

A magnetic field applies a force on a moving charge.


Force on a single charged particle
Force on a single charged particle in a wire simply by moving a magnet in and out of a coil of the wire.

  • Cathode ray tube – TV!

    • Electrons deflected by magnetic fields to form pictures


Cathode ray tube
Cathode Ray Tube in a wire simply by moving a magnet in and out of a coil of the wire.

Electric fields pull electrons off atoms, then more electric fields gather, and focus electrons into a beam.

  • Magnetic fields deflect electrons side to side and up and down across the screen

  • Screen coated with phosphorous that glows when struck


Force on a single charged particle1
Force on a single charged particle in a wire simply by moving a magnet in and out of a coil of the wire.

  • F = BIL

  • F = B(qv/L)L

  • F = Bqv

    • q = charge of electron

    • v = particle velocity


Magnetic force6
Magnetic Force in a wire simply by moving a magnet in and out of a coil of the wire.

The magnetic field of Earth deflects many charged particles that make up cosmic radiation.


Van allen radiation belts
Van Allen Radiation Belts in a wire simply by moving a magnet in and out of a coil of the wire.

  • Electrons trapped in Earth’s magnetic field

    • Solar storms send high-energy charged particles toward Earth

    • They knock electrons off VA belts

    • The electrons excite nitrogen and oxygen in the atmosphere creating a “halo”

    • The halo surrounds geomagnetic north


Van allen belts
Van Allen Belts in a wire simply by moving a magnet in and out of a coil of the wire.

  • The Van Allen radiation belts are formed as a result of earth’s magnetic field and shield us from radiation. We can see the aurora borealis as a result.


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