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1865-1877. IN THE WAKE OF WAR: Reconstruction or Restoration?. Accomplishments of Civil War. Destruction of slavery as political and economic system; Slaves freed. IN THE WAKE OF WAR Overview. African Americans – a Dream Deferred The Struggle over the South

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In the wake of war reconstruction or restoration




or Restoration?

Accomplishments of civil war
Accomplishmentsof Civil War

  • Destruction of slavery as political and economic system;

  • Slaves freed

In the wake of war overview

  • African Americans – a Dream Deferred

  • The Struggle over the South

    - Political, Economic, Social

African americans view self determination
African Americans view:self-determination

Reunite families, traveled long distances

Own land

Women stay home to tend to children and family

Educate children

Build Free Communities, free from white domination

Formed self-help organizations and black churches

American citizenship

Right to vote, run for local office (600 state legis.)

Protection by federal government, military occupation of South

Reconstruction amendments
Reconstruction Amendments

  • 13th amendment (1865) abolish slavery

  • 14th amendment (1865) citizenship rights; equal protection clause; confederate states must ratify to be in Union

  • 15th amendment, black men vote (1869)

Postwar policies
Postwar Policies

The Freedmen’s Bureau (1865-1868)

  • Liaison between freed people and southern whites to employers

  • Free labor system with annual contracts

Restoration 1865 1867
Restoration?, 1865–1867,

  • President Andrew Johnson (So. Democrat) supported white view of South against equal rights freed people

  • Black codes, states laws passed in South;

    • Imprison blacks or enforce labor, limit own property, firearms or liquor, interracial marriage

    • Vagrancy laws; unemployed southern blacks could be arrested and hired out to whites

  • Johnson vetoes extension and expansion of Freedman’s Bureau, supports states rights

  • Rise of Ku Klux Klan 1866 - terrorism

Reconstruction continued
Reconstruction Continued

  • November, 1866: Republicans gain majority in both houses (pass reconstruction amendments)

  • Radical Republicans, Pres. Johnson impeachment: 1868; President Grant elected (Republican).

  • 15th amendment: ratified in 1869

14 th amendment u s constitution section 1
14th AmendmentU.S. ConstitutionSection 1

  • Anyone born or naturalized in U.S. is an American citizen and deserves all rights granted by Constitution

  • No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizen of the U.S.; nor shall any State deprive any personof life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”

15 th amendment u s constitution section 1
15th Amendment U.S. Constitution, Section 1

  • “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”

  • Did not include age, sex, lack of money

The southern postwar labor problem need for labor
The Southern Postwar Labor Problem- Need for labor

  • The Freedman’s Bureau

    • Provided food, clothes, shelter

    • Free labor system with annual contracts

    • Sometimes aided white landowners labor needs; liaison freed people and whites

  • General Sherman’s Field Order Number 15

    • Forty acres and a mule, redistribution land

  • Sharecropping system; white landowner furnish seed, fertilizer, tools, food and clothing. In exchange, landlord gets share, ½ of harvest, which went to pay off debts

The election of 1876
The Election of 1876

  • Rutherford B. Hayes, Republican

    • Popular Vote: 4,036,572

    • Electoral Vote: 185

  • Samuel J. Tilden, Democrat

    • Popular Vote: 4,284,020

    • Electoral Vote: 184

Political compromise of 1877
Political Compromise of 1877

  • Republican Hayes in office

  • In return withdrawal of troops from South

  • Restoration of States Rights; white supremacists defy federal amendments and control state and local government

  • Jim Crow laws

End of reconstruction summary
End of ReconstructionSummary

  • A Dream Deferred

  • Republican vision; national unity based on prosperity and control national economic policy;

  • Democratic vision: States rights; control labor of freed people, disregard civil rights

  • White supremacy

  • Lynching in South