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Chapters 6&7 ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE. Definition. Attitude : a relatively global and enduring evaluation of an object, issue, person, or action. INFLUENCES. What influences consumers’ attitudes toward specific products/brands?. Elaboration Likelihood Model.

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Chapters 6&7 ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE

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Chapters 6 7 attitude formation and change l.jpg

Chapters 6&7ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE


Definition l.jpg

Definition

Attitude:a relatively global and enduring evaluation of an object, issue, person, or action


Influences l.jpg

INFLUENCES

  • What influences consumers’ attitudes toward specific products/brands?


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Elaboration Likelihood Model

Focus of model: Determining whether and under what conditions

an individual will elaborate on (process) the key

components of a persuasive message

Main proposition: There is more than one way to skin a cat (i.e.,

there are two routes to persuasion)

(1) central route: person focuses on key arguments in the persuasive communication and forms their attitude based on that (central) information

(2) peripheral route: person focuses on something other than the key arguments in the persuasive communication and forms their attitude based on that (peripheral) information


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The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion

Exposure to

Persuasive

Communication

Motivated to

Elaborate?

no

Peripheral Route

Processing

yes

no

Able to Elaborate?

yes

Central Route

Processing


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The ELM: Detecting Central vs. Peripheral Processing

  • Cognitive Response Approach

  • Method for examining consumers’ cognitive processing of

  • ad messages

  • Central Route Processing indicated by:

  • (a) counterarguments (product)

  • (b) support arguments (product)

  • (c) source derogations

  • Peripheral Route Processing indicated by:

  • (a) curiosity statements

  • (b) ad execution thoughts


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QUESTIONS

Should ads always encourage central route processing?

What ad design factors are most effective assuming central versus peripheral processing?

Can marketers predict how an ad will be processed?


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The Effects of Motivation on Attitude Formation

  • Central-route to persuasion

  • Peripheral-route to persuasion

Cognitive

Affective

Cognitive

Affective


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High Effort Affect


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  • TORA – Theory of Reasoned Action

Expectancy-Value Model: Attitude  Behavior

High Effort-Cognitively Based Theories of Attitude

  • Cognitive Response Model


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Theory of Reasoned Action


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More Predictive of

Behavioral Intentions

Attitude Toward Eating Cheeks

Attitude Specificity


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  • Not too

  • full

Belief

Strength

(bi)

2.

Taste slimy

3.

Get food

poisoning

Attitude Toward Eating Cheeks

Salient

Beliefs

Evaluation (ei)

Aact (biei)

+2

+1

+2

+3

-2

-6

+1

-3

-3

-7


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Normative

Beliefs

Strength

Motivation to Comply (MCj)

(NBj)

SN (NBxMC)

1. Boss

2. Client

3. Colleague

(jerk)

Subjective Norms

+3

+3

+9

+3

+2

+6

+2

-3

-6

+9


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The Bottom Line

BI = Aact + SN

=

=

Decision:

(-7) + (+9)

+2

Buy!


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TORA Model

  • Assumptions?

  • Insight into attitude change


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The Effects of Motivation on Attitude Formation

  • Central-route to persuasion

  • Peripheral-route to persuasion

Cognitive

Affective

Cognitive

Affective


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  • Operant Conditioning

Behavior

Cognitive Bases for Low- Motivation Attitudes

  • Simple inferences

    • Categorization

    • Brand name

  • Heuristics

    • Price/quality


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Behavior

Buy Dial

Reinforcer

Soft Skin

Operant Conditioning: Attitude as a Reinforcer/Punisher


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Affective Bases of Low- Motivation Attitudes

  • Mood

  • Classical Conditioning

  • The Mere Exposure Effect

  • Attitude toward the ad


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Prior Research

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Exposed

To Ad

Not Exposed

To Ad

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Positive

Article

Test: Attitude toward Ad:

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+++


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Experiment

Task: Read Article or

Do Nothing

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Test: Attitude toward:

Emotionally

Negative or

Positive

Article

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Exp. Ad

Other Ads

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Experiment

  • Subjects were exposed to the same ad three times

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  • One group always read an emotionally negative article, and one group a positive article

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Emotionally

Negative or

Positive

Article

  • What accounts for changes in attitude toward the ad?

    • Mood

    • Classical Conditioning

    • Mere Exposure

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Positive

Article

Negative

Article

Mood

  • Increases accessibility of mood congruent thoughts

  • Biasing effect on attitudes

Exp. Ad

Other Ads

Exp. Ad

Other Ads


Classical conditioning l.jpg

Salivate

Meat

?

Bell

Meat

+

Bell

Salivate

Salivate

Bell

Classical Conditioning


Classical conditioning29 l.jpg

Positive

Article

Negative

Article

Classical Conditioning

  • Unconditioned Stimulus

  • Unconditioned Response

  • Conditioned Stimulus

  • Conditioned Response

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Emotionally

Negative or

Positive

Article

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The mere exposure effect l.jpg

Positive

Article

Negative

Article

The Mere Exposure Effect

  • Exposure Facilitates subsequent processing

  • Without memory for the stimulus, this ease in processing is misattributed as liking.


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Results

Positive

Article

Negative

Article

Mood

Classical

Conditioning

Mere

Exposure


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Attitude Toward the Ad (Aad)

  • Transfer of affect from ad to product

  • Dual Mediation Hypothesis


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The Dual Mediation Hypothesis

Ad Credibility - Brand Beliefs

Aad

Ab


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Explicit vs. Implicit Attitudes

  • Please rate how warm or cold you feel toward the following groups (0 = coldest feelings, 5 = neutral, 10 = warmest feelings)

    • Old People ___

    • Young People ___

https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/


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