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SYSTEM-BUILDING AND QUALITY: WHAT’S AT STAKE?. Charles Smith, Ph.D. Executive Director, David P. Weikart Center for Youth Program Quality Vice President of Research, Forum for Youth Investment May 9, 2013; 9:00-9:30 am. Agenda. Quality Improvement Systems Building QIS Site Level Process

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System building and quality what s at stake

SYSTEM-BUILDING AND QUALITY:WHAT’S AT STAKE?

Charles Smith, Ph.D.

Executive Director, David P. Weikart Center for Youth Program Quality

Vice President of Research, Forum for Youth Investment

May 9, 2013; 9:00-9:30 am


Agenda

Agenda

  • Quality Improvement Systems

    • Building QIS

    • Site Level Process

    • System Accountabilities

  • Local Models of Quality Improvement System Accountability

  • Why Build Systems for Developmental Settings?

  • APPENDIX


Building qis

Building QIS


2012 2013 dissemination

l

2012-2013 Dissemination

Policy

Setting

85 Networks/ Systems

Organization Setting

>3250 Sites

>21,125 Staff

Estimate based on mean of 6.5

staff per site in YPQI Study Sample

Point of Service Setting

>276,250 Child & Youth

Estimate based on mean daily attendance of 85 youth per day in YPQI Study Sample


Building a qis stages and tasks

Building a QIS: Stages and tasks


Site level continuous improvement process

Site Level Continuous Improvement Process


Instructional practices quality at the point of service level setting

Instructional Practices“Quality” at the Point of Service Level Setting


Four continuous improvement practices organization level setting

Four Continuous Improvement PracticesOrganization Level Setting

(Plus 10 hours of TA/coaching for site managers to implement the four CI practices)


Targeted staff trainings for instructional skills ci practice 4

Targeted Staff Trainings for Instructional SkillsCI Practice #4


System accountabilities

System Accountabilities


System supports for ci practices

System Supports for CI Practices

Policy:

Eligibility, Targeting, Low/high stakes

Training, TA & Coaching

Evaluation

External Raters, Program Evaluation


System accountabilities higher stakes

System Accountabilities: Higher Stakes

  • Higher Stakes

  • Accountabilities


System accountabilities lower stakes

System Accountabilities: Lower Stakes

  • Higher Stakes Accountabilities

  • Interpretive Community

  • Team Self Assessment

  • Review external scores

  • Team Planning and Implementing

  • Improvement planning

  • Performance coaching

  • Lower Stakes Accountabilities


Higher stakes system needs and challenges

Higher Stakes: System Needs and Challenges

  • System Needs1

    • Standards beyond licensing regulations

    • Accountability policies based on assessment and monitoring

    • Program and practitioner outreach and support

    • Financing incentives specifically linked to compliance with quality standards

  • Challenges2

    • Differences in structure and design (e.g. measures)

    • Lack of coordination across agencies and data systems

    • Policies lack clarity about goals, timing and expectations for improvement

1. National Child Care Information and Technical Assistance Center. (2009). Quality Rating Systems: Definition and Statewide Systems. Fairfax, VA: National Child Care Information and Technical Assistance Center.

http://www.dataqualitycampaign.org/files/4_NCCIC_QRIS.pdf

2. Tout, K., Zaslow, M., Halle, T., and Forry, N. (2009). Issues for the next decade of quality rating and improvement

systems. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Education.


Local models of quality improvement system accountability

Local Models of Quality Improvement System Accountability


Requirements

Requirements


Incentives punishments

Incentives/Punishments


Sources of data for public ratings

Sources of Data for Public Ratings

  • Oakland

    • Participation records

    • Program Quality Assessment (PQA)

    • Stakeholder surveys

    • Academic records

    • http://publicprofit.net/Services/Evaluation/

  • Arkansas QRIS

    • Program or Business Administration Scale (PAS or BAS)

    • Traveling Arkansas Professional Development Registry (TAPP)

    • Program Quality Assessment (PQA)

    • School-Age Care Environmental Rating Scale (SACERS)

    • Various other criteria

    • http://www.arbetterbeginnings.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/sagridswithdef.pdf


Ypqi study best practices

YPQI Study “Best” Practices


Prime time palm beach county

Prime Time Palm Beach County


Evolution

Evolution

  • Piloted QIS elements with four providers in 2010

  • Confirmed what we suspected: expertise in content; opportunity to strengthen youth development

  • Included all enrichment programs in the modified QIS

  • Changed name of enrichment activities to “expanded learning opportunities” in 2012 to reflect new expectations

  • Moving to greater alignment with the school day through the Common Core framework

  • Moving to more concrete learning measures and youth outcomes


Background

Background

  • Founded in 2000

  • Primary Areas of Service:

    • Quality Improvement

    • Professional Development

    • Community Engagement and Supports

  • Supported enrichment activities for nine years

  • Belief that a variety of experiences is essential for positive youth development


  • Qis annual cycle

    QIS annual cycle


    Qis level system

    QIS Level System

    • Recognizes high quality programs and directors

    • Provides flexible time expectations based on needs


    Why build systems for developmental settings

    Why Build Systems for Developmental Settings?

    A Frame for Developmental Systems


    Frames

    Frames

    • Positive Youth Development

      • Substitution

      • Skill building

    • Systems as…

      • Protective factors (Fragmentation = risk)

      • School reform (“Expanded Learning”)

    • Reinventing Government / Social Sector

      • Regulating core processes (instead of inputs)

      • Building performance cultures


    System building and quality what s at stake1

    SYSTEM-BUILDING AND QUALITY:WHAT’S AT STAKE?

    Charles Smith, Ph.D.

    Executive Director, David P. Weikart Center for Youth Program Quality

    Vice President of Research, Forum for Youth Investment

    [email protected]

    http://cypq.org/ypqi


    System building and quality what s at stake

    APPENDIX


    High stakes examples

    High Stakes Examples


    Higher stakes models

    Higher Stakes Models

    • Oakland requires participation, scores are tied to funding, and reports go to the city government

    • AR’s system is voluntary, but once in it, scores feed into 3 tier system that are used for incentive grants and published ratings for families


    Oakland unified school district ousd and oakland fund for child and youth ocfy

    Oakland Unified School District (OUSD) and Oakland Fund for Child and Youth (OCFY)

    • http://publicprofit.net/Services/Evaluation/

    • OUSD and OCFY are funders

    • Public Profit is the intermediary and evaluator

    • System is voluntary for self assessment, required for external assessment and planning

    • Process:

      • All sites get external assessments of 2 program offerings

      • All sites receive individualized “planning with data” type meetings with the evaluators,  who go over their scores and work with them to create improvement plans

      • Reports of external assessments are also sent to city government

      • All sites have access to Methods trainings

      • Programs with low scores receive additional coaching

    • Incentives:

      • Programs with extremely low scores (scale scores under 2) that don’t improve over the course of 2-3 years could lose their funding

      • No sites have lost funding almost no programs score that low


    Arkansas quality rating and improvement system qris

    Arkansas Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS)

    • http://www.arbetterbeginnings.com/

    • Arkansas State University serves as intermediary for system for school-age care programs

    • System is voluntary

    • Process:

      • A three-tiered rating system that the PQA scores feed into, but it is only one of multiple measures.

      • Components included in the ratings are:

        • Administration

        • Administrator/Staff Qualifications & Professional Development

        • Learning Environment

        • Environmental Assessment

        • Child Health & Development

    • Incentives:

      • Ratings are used to offer both incentive grants and published ratings for families to use to decide where to send their children

      • Incentive Grants are available upon meeting certification standards at each of the 3 levels

        • At level 1 and level 2, it is renewable for a maximum of 9 years (not to exceed 6 years at either level 1 or level 2).

        • At level 3, the Incentive Grant is available annually, as long as the facility continues to meet the standards. 

        • Incentive grant amounts are based on a combination of licensed capacities, current Level and the number of years spent at that level.


    Middle stakes examples

    Middle Stakes Examples


    Middle stakes models

    Middle Stakes Models

    • MI/OK require process to maintain funding, but focus on supports and coaching

    • Kansas City has 3 tier incentive system based on completion of YPQI elements to get funding at the different levels

    • VT has 5 tier recognition program based on various practices where programs get funding, public awareness, discounts, and funding opportunities


    Kansas city united way

    Kansas City United Way

    • http://www.unitedwaygkc.org/nonprofits/qualitymatters.html

    • UW is the intermediary, partners with Francis Institute for coaching and University of Missouri, Kansas City for evaluation/external assessments

    • System is voluntary

    • Half the sites that participate are United Way funded programs, but United Way funds the YPQI process for all sites

    • Process:

      • Have high fidelity to YPQI assess-plan-improve, with all sites doing assessments, planning and receiving coaching

    • Incentives:

      • Have a 3 tier incentive system that is based on completion of the elements of the YPQI, and they receive $300, $500 and $750 accordingly

      • Example: Participation Level 3: $750 – Completion of:

        • Conduct a fall team based PQA self-assessment which includes observation and team consensus and enter  data into the Online Scores Reporter by [DATE].

        • Program Improvement Plan created and entered into Online Scores Reporter by [DATE].

        • 75% completion rate of goals set in Program Improvement Plan**by [DATE]

        • Attend 7 different workforce training (1-4 site staff may attend each training and must stay for entire session) by [DATE]


    Michigan 21 st cclc and oklahoma 21 st cclc

    Michigan 21st CCLC and Oklahoma 21st CCLC

    • http://www.michigan.gov/mde/0,4615,7-140-6530_6809-39974--,00.html

    • http://www.ok.gov/sde/21cclc

    • Similarly structured systems, they are both funder and intermediary

    • Participation is required since it is tied to funding

    • Process:

      • Data from both the PQA and evaluation are incorporated into the QIS process

      • Coaches are key component, offering comprehensive services to select programs

    • Incentives:

      • Focus is on implementation and improvement supports

      • Require that all sites complete full process in order to maintain good standing on grant

      • Scores are not used punitively, but can be used to target coaching services


    Vermont center for afterschool excellence

    Vermont Center for Afterschool Excellence

    • http://www.vermontafterschool.org/

    • http://dcf.vermont.gov/cdd/stars

    • Are intermediary, they serve both 21st CCLC and AHS/QRIS programs

    • Both systems encourage use of the YPQI, but is voluntary

    • Process:

      • Have a 5 tier star system for recognition of programs, based on practices in these areas:

        • Compliance with state regulations

        • Staff qualifications and training;

        • Interaction with and overall support of children, families, and communities;

        • How thoroughly providers assess what they do and plan for improvements; and

        • The strength of the program’s operating policies and business practices.

    • Incentives:

      • The benefits for the star system, tiered based on number of stars the program has earned:

        • The Child Care Financial Assistance Program (CCFAP) pays a higher rate on behalf of families.

        • Bonus payments for EACH level achieved:

        • Public awareness of STARS participation if requested. Options include: listing on the STARS website, supply of STARS brochures, and a customized press release.

        • The opportunity to apply for grants open only to programs that are in STARS or are nationally accredited

        • Discount on purchases from a list of corporate sponsors.


    Lower stakes example

    Lower Stakes Example

    Indianapolis Marion County Commission on Youth (MCCOY)


    Lower stakes models

    Lower Stakes Models

    • Main incentive is access all supports, learning community, flexibility and choice

    • MCCOY is very low stakes, all parts are suggested but optional

    • Raikes also offers funding to programs to subsidize participation


    Indianapolis marion county commission on youth mccoy

    Indianapolis Marion County Commission on Youth (MCCOY)

    • http://www.mccoyouth.org/

    • MCCOY is intermediary

    • Very, very low stakes--Participation is entirely voluntary

    • Process

      • Sites do the full Assess-Plan-Improve sequence

      • Sites can do self and external assessment, usually only once a year, but could do more

      • No coaching or training in instructional coaching

      • Methods workshops are offered for all sites

      • Recruitment can be hard, but they focus on partnerships and Methods to get sites engaged

      • Programs choose to join cohorts (2-3 cohorts per year)

      • Programs can choose to participate multiple times but there is no emphasis on tracking year to year improvement.

    • Incentives

      • Programs have access to supports and learning community, and a lot of flexibility in choosing how to improve


    Seattle washington state raikes foundation and school s out washington

    Seattle & Washington State- Raikes Foundation and School’s Out Washington

    • http://raikesfoundation.org/Secondary.aspx?file%3daboutmission

    • http://www.schoolsoutwashington.org/index.htm

    • Raikes Foundation is the funder

    • Schools Out Washington is the intermediary, with other local supports

    • Has funded 1-3 cohorts across the state since 2008

    • System is voluntary, programs apply

    • Programs span funding and accountability streams

    • Process

      • There is an intensive application process that comes with funding to programs to subsidize their participation and all of the supports are free

      • High level of fidelity to YPQI

      • Sites get less and less supports over a 3 year period…beyond that they can apply for funding to get a al carte services

    • Incentives:

      • Participation comes with funding to programs to subsidize their participation and all of the supports are free


    Ypqi evidence

    YPQI Evidence


    Cqi systems cross level roles

    CQI Systems: Cross-Level Roles

    SettingsActorsBehaviors

    Policy

    Setting

    Network Leaders

    …enact standards and supports

    …engages standards and supports

    Managers

    Organization Setting

    …enacts continuous improvement practices

    …engages in continuous improvement practices

    Staff

    Point of Service Setting

    …enacts instructional practices

    Youth

    Youth engage in instruction and build skills


    Management ci skills ypqi study baseline

    Management CI SkillsYPQI Study Baseline


    Staff ci skills n 366 ypqi study baseline

    Staff CI SkillsN=366, YPQI Study Baseline

    • State of the Field

    • 10% of staff were engaged in all CI practices

    • 22% were not engaged in CI practices

    • 68% were engaged in

    • some practices

    Note: Profile of 3 exemplary clusters from an 6 cluster solution


    Staff instructional skills 3 n 600 different youth workers and teachers

    Staff Instructional Skills3N= 600 different youth workers and teachers

    Occurred For All

    Occurred For Some

    Did Not Occur

    Positive Youth Development

    N=166, 28%

    Staff Centered

    N=231, 39%

    Low Quality

    N=193, 33%


    Cqi systems cross level roles1

    CQI Systems: Cross-Level Roles

    Settings ActorsBehaviors

    Policy

    Setting

    Network Leaders

    …enact standards and supports

    ES =1.87

    …engages standards and supports

    Managers

    Organization Setting

    ES =.98

    …enacts continuous improvement practices

    ES =.52

    …engages in continuous improvement practices

    Staff

    ES =.55

    Point of Service Setting

    …enacts instructional practices

    Youth

    Youth engage in instruction and build skills


    Participant satisfaction

    Participant Satisfaction

    N=128 site managers, 178 staff from Atlanta, Baltimore, Chattanooga, Maryland,

    Nashville, Richmond, Vermont, Washington


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