Roman Republican Government:. SPQR “The Senate and the People Are Rome” 6.2. Roman Government. 2 Classes Patricians & Plebeians Why were many plebeians dissatisfied with Roman government in the early years? Reforms? How did they get them?.
“The Senate and the People Are Rome”
2 Classes Patricians
Why were many plebeians dissatisfied with Roman government in the early years?
Reforms? How did they get them?
A tortoise manuever
1. How did the Roman government win support from conquered peoples?
2. What was army life like?
Ancient relief sculpture of a Roman Triumph: A Parade of Victory
What privileges do veterans get?
Why was the legion more lethal than the Greek phallanx?
How did the typical legionnaire live?
Led 5-25 legions
Legate – led one legion
A legion was 50-60 centuries
A Centurion commanded one century
80-100 legionairesmade up a century
Between 494-287 BC thousands of plebeians refused to fight in expanding Rome unless patricians agreed to reforms
Enslavement for debt was eliminated
Marriage between the classes allowed
AND it was chiseled in stone as written law…in 451BC
- hung in the forumHow were the Twelve Tables as a set of laws? Review problems
All 4 of these virtues in
architectural balance: the bottom three support Justice
*Developed by Greek philosophers…
or Executive Branch
And other officials…
Censors – Population, Elections
Praetors - Courts
Aediles – City Order, Construction
Questors - Treasury
Must serve 20 years in the Army;
Patrician only at first, later Plebeian OK.
Advises Consuls, who must obey this advice
300 most powerful men
Former magistrates can automatically enter the Senate w/ approval of censors.
Originally had to be patricians, later plebeians can enter, first as Tribunes, then as influential or wealthy menSPQR: Balanced Government
No debate took place:
just yes/no votes on laws
and votes on electing magistrates & tribunes
- Can veto laws of Assembly
For 6 months only
“…Lucius balanced?Quinctius Cincinnatus was appointed by universal consent. It is worthwhile for those persons who despise all things human in comparison with riches, and who suppose that there is no room either for exalted honour, or for virtue, except where riches abound in great profusion, to listen to the following [story of Cincinnatus]…
Livy, Roman historian
458 BC – a former consul is called to serve…
(Statue in Cincinnati, Ohio)Cincinnatus: a good Dictator
Before the First Punic War balanced?
Before the 2 balanced?nd Punic War,
Hannibal and the Battle of Zama
After the Punic Wars: Expansion by 44 BC balanced?
Pt 1 Meet Hannibal
and 2 Battle of Cannae
And 3 The End of Hannibal
(by Titus Labienus)
How they got the elephants ready for battle
Click on links above to begin
Battle of Zama, 1597 drawing
Battle of Zama balanced?CarthageRoman Republic
Hannibal Scipio Africanus
Almost 50,000 infantry 4,000 cavalry80 war elephants 34,000 Roman infantry 3,000 Roman cavalry 6,000 African allied cavalry
20,000 killed, 1,500 killed,
11,000 wounded, 4,000 wounded
2. “Hannibal was a very effective general.”
Although 1, 2 because of 3.
2. “The Carthaginian loss in the 2nd Punic War due more to Roman skill.”
Although 1, 2 because of 3.
Etruscan kings took control
Plebieans begin strugggle for more rights
Cincinattus: ideal dictator 12 tables Written
Gauls sack Rome
Gen Pyrrhus beats the Romans
Greeks driven out of Italy
3 Punic Wars: 2nd: Hannibal / Scipio
Sulla abolishes 6 mo. dictat. term
Spartacus leads rebellion
Caesar starts Civil War