Project management
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Project management. Topics covered. Management activities Project planning Project scheduling Risk management. Software project management.

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Project management

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Project management

Project management


Topics covered

Topics covered

  • Management activities

  • Project planning

  • Project scheduling

  • Risk management


Software project management

Software project management

  • Concerned with activities involved in ensuring that software is delivered on time and on schedule and in accordance with the requirements of the organisations developing and procuring the software.

  • Project management is needed because software development is always subject to budget and schedule constraints that are set by the organisation developing the software.


Software management distinctions

Software management distinctions

  • The product is intangible.

  • The product is uniquely flexible.

  • Software engineering is not recognized as an engineering discipline with the sane status as mechanical, electrical engineering, etc.

  • The software development process is not standardised.

  • Many software projects are 'one-off' projects.


Management activities

Management activities

  • Proposal writing.

  • Project planning and scheduling.

  • Project costing.

  • Project monitoring and reviews.

  • Personnel selection and evaluation.

  • Report writing and presentations.


Project staffing

Project staffing

  • May not be possible to appoint the ideal people to work on a project

    • Project budget may not allow for the use of highly-paid staff;

    • Staff with the appropriate experience may not be available;

    • An organisation may wish to develop employee skills on a software project.

  • Managers have to work within these constraints especially when there are shortages of trained staff.


Project planning

Project planning

  • Probably the most time-consuming project management activity.

  • Continuous activity from initial concept through to system delivery. Plans must be regularly revised as new information becomes available.

  • Various different types of plan may be developed to support the main software project plan that is concerned with schedule and budget.


Types of project plan

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Types of project plan


Project planning process

Project planning process

Establish the project constraints

Make initial assessments of the project parameters

Define project milestones and deliverables

while project has not been completed or cancelled loop

Draw up project schedule

Initiate activities according to schedule

Wait ( for a while )

Review project progress

Revise estimates of project parameters

Update the project schedule

Re-negotiate project constraints and deliverables

if ( problems arise ) then

Initiate technical review and possible revision

end if

end loop


The project plan

The project plan

  • The project plan sets out:

    • The resources available to the project;

    • The work breakdown;

    • A schedule for the work.


Project plan structure

Project plan structure

  • Introduction.

  • Project organisation.

  • Risk analysis.

  • Hardware and software resource requirements.

  • Work breakdown.

  • Project schedule.

  • Monitoring and reporting mechanisms.


Activity organization

Activity organization

  • Activities in a project should be organised to produce tangible outputs for management to judge progress.

  • Milestones are the end-point of a process activity.

  • Deliverables are project results delivered to customers.

  • The waterfall process allows for the straightforward definition of progress milestones.


Milestones in the re process

Milestones in the RE process


Project scheduling

Project scheduling

  • Split project into tasks and estimate time and resources required to complete each task.

  • Organize tasks concurrently to make optimal use of workforce.

  • Minimize task dependencies to avoid delays caused by one task waiting for another to complete.

  • Dependent on project managers intuition and experience.


The project scheduling process

The project scheduling process


Bar charts and activity networks

Bar charts and activity networks

  • Graphical notations used to illustrate the project schedule.

  • Show project breakdown into tasks. Tasks should not be too small. They should take about a week or two.

  • Activity charts show task dependencies and the the critical path.

  • Bar charts show schedule against calendar time.


Task durations and dependencies

Task durations and dependencies


Activity network

Activity network


Activity timeline

Activity timeline


Staff allocation

Staff allocation


Risk management

Risk management

  • Risk management is concerned with identifying risks and drawing up plans to minimise their effect on a project.

  • A risk is a probability that some adverse circumstance will occur

    • Project risks affect schedule or resources;

    • Product risks affect the quality or performance of the software being developed;

    • Business risks affect the organisation developing or procuring the software.


Software risks

Software risks


Risks and risk types

Risks and risk types


Risk analysis i

Risk analysis (i)


Risk analysis ii

Risk analysis (ii)


Risk management strategies i

Risk management strategies (i)


Risk management strategies ii

Risk management strategies (ii)


Risk indicators

Risk indicators


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