Chapter 3: Matter and Minerals part II

Chapter 3: Matter and Minerals part II PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Minerals: the building blocks of rocks. Definition of a Mineral: naturally occurring inorganic solid characteristic crystalline structure definite chemical composition. . How do we identify minerals?. Physical properties:ColorLusterHardnessCrystal shapeCleavage Specific gravityOther.

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Chapter 3: Matter and Minerals part II

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1. Chapter 3: Matter and Minerals (part II)

2. Minerals: the building blocks of rocks Definition of a Mineral: naturally occurring inorganic solid characteristic crystalline structure definite chemical composition

3. How do we identify minerals? Physical properties: Color Luster Hardness Crystal shape Cleavage Specific gravity Other

4. Physical Properties of Minerals Color: Most obvious, but often misleading Different colors may result from impurities

5. Physical Properties of Minerals Color: Streak color of a mineral in powdered form (used for metallic minerals)

6. Physical Properties of Minerals Luster: How a mineral surface reflects light Two major types: Metallic luster Non-metallic luster

7. Physical Properties of Minerals Hardness: How easy it is to scratch a mineral Mohs Scale of Hardness relative scale consists of 10 minerals, ranked 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest)

8. Mohs Scale of Hardness

9. Physical Properties of Minerals Crystal shape (or form): external expression of a minerals internal atomic structure planar surfaces are called crystal faces angles between crystal faces are constant for any particular mineral

10. Physical Properties of Minerals Cleavage vs. Fracture: The way a mineral breaks

11. Physical Properties of Minerals Cleavage is described by: Number of planes Angles between adjacent planes

12. Physical Properties of Minerals Cleavage (1 direction):

13. Physical Properties of Minerals Cleavage (2 directions):

14. Physical Properties of Minerals Cleavage (3 directions):

15. Physical Properties of Minerals Cleavage (4 directions):

16. Physical Properties of Minerals Fracture: minerals that do not exhibit cleavage are said to fracture

17. Physical Properties of Minerals Specific gravity: weight of a mineral divided by weight of an equal volume of water metallic minerals tend to have higher specific gravity than non-metallic minerals

18. Physical Properties of Minerals Other properties:

19. Rock-forming minerals ~30 common minerals make up most rocks in Earths crust Composed mainly of the 8 elements that make up over 98% of the crust Mineral Groups

20. Mineral Groups

21. Mineral Groups Silicates (most abundant) Non-silicates (~8% of Earths crust):

22. Mineral Groups Silicates Silicates Tetrahedron fundamental building block 4 oxygen ions surrounding a much smaller silicon ion

23. Mineral Groups Silicates Joining Silicate Structures How tetrahedra may be linked: independent tetrahedra single chains double chains sheets 3-D framework

24. Mineral Groups Silicates

25. Mineral Groups Silicates

26. Mineral Groups Silicates

27. Mineral Groups Silicates

28. Mineral Groups Silicates

29. Mineral Groups Silicates

30. Mineral Groups Silicates

31. Mineral Groups

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