Chapter 3: Matter and Minerals part II

Chapter 3: Matter and Minerals part II PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Minerals: the building blocks of rocks. Definition of a Mineral: naturally occurring inorganic solid characteristic crystalline structure definite chemical composition. . How do we identify minerals?. Physical properties:ColorLusterHardnessCrystal shapeCleavage Specific gravityOther.

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Chapter 3: Matter and Minerals part II

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1. Chapter 3: Matter and Minerals (part II)

2. Minerals: the building blocks of rocks Definition of a Mineral: naturally occurring inorganic solid characteristic crystalline structure definite chemical composition

3. How do we identify minerals? Physical properties: Color Luster Hardness Crystal shape Cleavage Specific gravity Other

4. Physical Properties of Minerals Color: Most obvious, but often misleading Different colors may result from impurities

5. Physical Properties of Minerals Color: Streak – color of a mineral in powdered form (used for metallic minerals)

6. Physical Properties of Minerals Luster: How a mineral surface reflects light Two major types: Metallic luster Non-metallic luster

7. Physical Properties of Minerals Hardness: How easy it is to scratch a mineral Mohs Scale of Hardness relative scale consists of 10 minerals, ranked 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest)

8. Mohs Scale of Hardness

9. Physical Properties of Minerals Crystal shape (or form): external expression of a mineral’s internal atomic structure planar surfaces are called crystal faces angles between crystal faces are constant for any particular mineral

10. Physical Properties of Minerals Cleavage vs. Fracture: The way a mineral breaks

11. Physical Properties of Minerals Cleavage is described by: Number of planes Angles between adjacent planes

12. Physical Properties of Minerals Cleavage (1 direction):

13. Physical Properties of Minerals Cleavage (2 directions):

14. Physical Properties of Minerals Cleavage (3 directions):

15. Physical Properties of Minerals Cleavage (4 directions):

16. Physical Properties of Minerals Fracture: minerals that do not exhibit cleavage are said to fracture

17. Physical Properties of Minerals Specific gravity: weight of a mineral divided by weight of an equal volume of water metallic minerals tend to have higher specific gravity than non-metallic minerals

18. Physical Properties of Minerals Other properties:

19. Rock-forming minerals ~30 common minerals make up most rocks in Earth’s crust Composed mainly of the 8 elements that make up over 98% of the crust Mineral Groups

20. Mineral Groups

21. Mineral Groups Silicates (most abundant) Non-silicates (~8% of Earth’s crust):

22. Mineral Groups – Silicates Silicates Tetrahedron fundamental building block 4 oxygen ions surrounding a much smaller silicon ion

23. Mineral Groups – Silicates Joining Silicate Structures How tetrahedra may be linked: independent tetrahedra single chains double chains sheets 3-D framework

24. Mineral Groups – Silicates –

25. Mineral Groups – Silicates

26. Mineral Groups – Silicates

27. Mineral Groups – Silicates

28. Mineral Groups – Silicates

29. Mineral Groups – Silicates

30. Mineral Groups – Silicates

31. Mineral Groups

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