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Unit 1 Principles of Greco-Roman, Judeo Christian Thought. The Ancient Roots of Democracy Greece / Athens. C.S.S. 10.1.1 The similarities and differences in Greco-Roman views of law, reason, and faith; duties of individuals. C.S.S. 10.1.2

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unit 1 principles of greco roman judeo christian thought
Unit 1Principles of Greco-Roman, Judeo Christian Thought

The Ancient Roots of Democracy

Greece / Athens

slide2
C.S.S. 10.1.1

The similarities and differences in Greco-Roman views of law, reason, and faith; duties of individuals.

C.S.S. 10.1.2

The development of the Western political ideas of the rule of law and illegitimacy of tyranny.

four types of governments found in ancient greece
Four Types of Governmentsfound in Ancient Greece

In Aristotle’s book, Politics, he surveyed the

different kinds of government as seen in

neighboring city-states and countries. Aristotle

found that each kind of government tended to

create its own kind of injustice:

Monarchy

Ruling power is in the hands of a

single person. Most monarchies

have been ruled by kings, usually

with the help of advisors.

four types of governments found in ancient greece1
Four Types of Governmentsfound in Ancient Greece

“Of aristocracy, oligarchy…

Oligarchy has in view the interest of the wealthy...”

Aristocracy

Ruling power is in the hands of a

few leaders – a.k.a. Oligarchy

Members had inherited wealth and

power from their families.

four types of governments found in ancient greece2
Four Types of Governmentsfound in Ancient Greece

“The perversion of royalty is tyranny…

For tyranny is a kind of monarchy which has in

view the interest of the monarch only.”

Tyranny

Ruling power is in the hands of a

Individual who has seized control,

often by illegal means. “Usurper

with supreme power.”

four types of governments found in ancient greece3
Four Types of Governmentsfound in Ancient Greece

Democracy

Ruling power is in the hands of all

the people. First established in

Athens around 500 B.C. Leaders

have limited individual power.

“Of constitutional government, democracy.

Democracy, that of the needy; none of them

has the common good of all.”

slide7
The Ancient Roots of Democracy

A. Greece / Athens

1. Citizenship

a. before people were considered

subjects

b. people begin to have both rights

and responsibilities

- they become “citizens”

slide8
2. Worth and dignity of the Individual

a. Respect for human intelligence and the power of reason

slide9
3. Political Freedom

a. Belief that the average citizen is

capable of participating intelligently

in the affairs of state

b. All adult male citizens were members

of the Assembly

c. No matter their status, they all

have equal right to vote, hold office, and to explain their opinion

slide10
d. Pericles

1.) Funeral Oration What is the responsibility of a citizen?

2.) How do his reforms strengthen (direct) democracy?

slide11
“We do not say that a man who takes no interest in politics is a man who minds his own business; we say that he has no business here at all.”

-Pericles, 5th century B.C.

slide12
4. Role of Reason

a. respect for human intelligence and the power of reason

b. “Natural Law”

1. Greek philosophers said that nature

was not controlled by arbitrary and willful gods (unsatisfied with legends)

slide13
2. natural law

a. The belief that all things in the

natural world follow predictable patterns

b. Rules of nature can be discovered through careful observation and reasoned inquiry

c. Questioned old ways

unit 1 principles of greco roman judeo christian thought1
Unit 1Principles of Greco-Roman, Judeo Christian Thought

The Ancient Roots of Democracy

Greece / Athens

slide15

How Periclean Democracy Operated: T/F

1. The city of Athens directly ruled over the area of Greece called Attica.

2. All adult citizens would participate in democratic decision making.

3. Three major groups – vastly outnumbering the adult male citizens – could not participate in the government of Athens.

4. The Areopagus had the responsibility for ostracism.

5. People were chosen by lot to serve in the military.

slide16

How Periclean Democracy Operated: T/F

  • The Board of Magistrates sent allotted members to serve as judicial reviewers for murder cases.
  • Archons and ex-archons had important festive and legal duties
  • Law suits used jury men selected from 6000 male citizens made available by lot.
  • Generals were elected by the archons.
  • Athens established an empire which controlled five tributary districts.
  • The Assembly was the largest and most powerful political body in Athens
slide17

How Periclean Democracy Operated: T/F

12. People were chosen by lot to serve jury duty.

unit 1 principles of greco roman judeo christian thought2
Unit 1Principles of Greco-Roman, Judeo Christian Thought

The Ancient Roots of Democracy

Greece / Athens

slide19
c. Greek Philosophers – SPA

What was their ideal form of government?

1.) Socrates

a.) What led to the trial of Socrates? Trial’s outcome?

b.) What was the impact of his trial

on his students and on their view of democracy?

slide20
2.) Plato

a.) Republic

b.) What was his ideal form of government?

3.) Aristotle

a.) Politics

b.) What was his ideal form of government?

unit 1 principles of greco roman judeo christian thought3
Unit 1Principles of Greco-Roman, Judeo Christian Thought

“Until philosophers are kings, or the kings and princes of this world have the spirit and power of philosophy, and political greatness and wisdom meet in one, and those commoner natures who pursue either to the exclusion of the other are compelled to stand aside, cities will never have rest from these evils- no, nor the human race, as I believe- and then only will this our State have a possibility of life and behold the light of day.”

Plato

slide23
B. Rome (509 - 44 B.C.)

1. Republic - representative government - no monarch

2. Law (Twelve Tables - 451 B.C.)

a. Should be based on reason and justice and protect citizens and property

b. Applies to all peoples (regardless of

their nationality)

c. Legacy

slide24
3. Natural Law and Stoicism

a. In nature certain rational principles and

standards apply to all people in all times

b. Stoics – Greek philosophers

1. everyone is born with the capacity to reason

2. since reason was common to all people, all people were basically equal

slide25
3. since people are fundamentally

alike they are subject to the

same moral law and principles

4. human law must not violate

the higher natural law

c. Legacy – evolves later into theory that people have certain rights that no legitimate government can deny

slide27

Reasons for the Fall of the Roman Empire

  • 1. Political
  • a. The dictatorial government was inefficient and corrupt – it did not command the people’s loyalty.
  • b. Vast empire was impossible to govern from one central city.
  • c. Rivalry over the throne led to destructive civil wars.
slide28

2. Economic

a. Small farmers abandoned their lands, lost incentive to work/improve farming techniques.

b. Large estates control trade and farming – much is curtailed both trade and industry.

c. Heavy tax burden – loss of incentive

d. widespread use of slaves in industry and agriculture caused great unemployment

slide29

3. Social

a. People’s interest lay mainly in luxury and survival – patriotism/service almost vanished

slide30

3. Social

b. Sharp class distinctions – upper classes (i.e.. wealthy/educated)

4. Military

a. warlike spirit of the Roman replaced by Christian teachings of love and universal peace.

slide31

4. Military

b. Roman armies employed professional soldiers – including Germanic tribesmen (mercenary)

c. Soldiers see themselves as the masters of the State – not servants but masters of their property

slide34

Focus Question:

The Greeks and Romans both shared the belief that it was man’s ability to reason that elevated his value, his dignity.

What fundamental belief did the Jewish or Christian faiths share that gave them reason to dignify man?

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