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Chapter 15: Genetic Engineering. Section 15-3: Applications of Genetic Engineering. Agriculture and Industry. Genetic engineering used to improve products we get from plants and animals Could lead to better, less expensive, more nutritious food, and safer manufacturing processes. GM Crops.

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Chapter 15: Genetic Engineering

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Chapter 15 genetic engineering

Chapter 15: Genetic Engineering

Section 15-3:

Applications of Genetic Engineering

Agriculture and industry

Agriculture and Industry

  • Genetic engineering used to improve products we get from plants and animals

  • Could lead to better, less expensive, more nutritious food, and safer manufacturing processes

Gm crops

GM Crops

  • Genetically modified plants since 1996

  • Example: adding bacterial genes that produce Bt toxin - kills insects

    • No pesticides needed

    • Higher crop yields

  • Resistance to herbicides, viral infections, rot and spoilage

  • Some being made to produce plastics

Gm animals

GM Animals

  • 30% of milk produced by cows modified with hormones that increase milk production

  • Pigs that produce leaner meat , high levels of omega-3

  • Salmon with extra growth hormone to make them grow quicker

  • Canada – goats that produce silk

  • Goat milk with antibacterial enzymes

Gm animals1

GM Animals

  • Scientists hoping to clone transgenic animals to increase food supply and save endangered species

  • 2008 – gov’t allowed sale of meat and milk from cloned animals

  • Avoid complications of traditional breeding, duplicate exactly

Preventing disease

Preventing Disease

  • Making more nutritious plants

  • Producing antibodies to fight disease

  • Make proteins we need

Medical research

Medical Research

  • Transgenic animals used as test subjects

  • Study defective genes, disease progression

  • Conduct drug tests

Treating disease

Treating Disease

  • Recombinant DNA technology used to make human proteins to treat disease – human growth hormone, insulin, blood-clotting factor, cancer-fighting proteins

  • Also gene therapy – the process of changing a gene to treat a medical disease or disorder

  • Absent or faulty gene replaced with a normal, working gene

Treating disease1

Treating Disease

  • Very risky

  • Need a more reliable way to insert working genes

  • Make sure it’s not harmful

Genetic testing

Genetic Testing

  • Hundreds of diseases/disorders can be tested for

  • Some use labeled DNA probes that can detect disease-causing alleles

  • Some search for changes in cutting sequences

  • Some use PCR to detect differences in length between normal and abnormal alleles

Examining active genes

Examining Active Genes

  • Not every gene is active in ever cell all the time

  • Understand how cells function by studying active genes using DNA microarray technology - measures level of activity of genes

Dna microarray

DNA Microarray

  • Glass slide or silicon chip to which spots of single-stranded DNA are attached – each spot with a different DNA fragment

  • Colored tags label source of DNA

Dna microarray1

DNA Microarray

  • Red spots = more cancer mRNA

  • Green spots = more normal mRNA

  • Yellow spots = both

Personal identification

Personal Identification

  • No 2 individuals are genetically identical (except identical twins)

  • Regions of chromosomes contain repeated sequences that do not code for proteins that differ from person to person

Personal identification1

Personal Identification

  • DNA fingerprinting analyzes sections of DNA that have little/no function but that vary widely from one individual to another

  • Use REs to cut DNA into fragments, electrophoresis to separate fragments

Personal identification2

Personal Identification

  • DNA probe detects fragments with highly variable regions

  • If enough probe/enzyme combos are used, resulting banding pattern can be used to distinguish a person

  • DNA from any tissue can be used

Forensic science

Forensic Science

  • Forensics = study of crime scene evidence

  • Uses DNA fingerprinting to solve crimes, overturn convictions

  • Wildlife conservation

Establishing relationships

Establishing Relationships

  • When genes are passed parent to child, the markers used in DNA fingerprinting are scrambled

  • Y chromosome, however, passed directly from father to son with few changes – paternity tests

  • Pieces of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) also passed from mother to child directly – 2 people with the same mtDNA share a common maternal ancestor

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