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Birtn &> b> FirN. 9 (Ds[. ,1946 - b> FirN sBin &> (v( Fvt ud`GiTn - Diƒ . s(µ cdin >d (s>hi - aAYiy ) a¹yx 11 (Ds[.,1946 - Diƒ . rij [ºW p\ sid - AYiy ) a¹yx 13 (Ds[.,1946 - jvihrlil nh [$a[ a]( thi ( sk uØ [ Æy p\ Ativ rj * kyi [<

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Birtn b firn
Birtn&> b>FirN

  • 9 (Ds[. ,1946 - b>FirNsBin&> (v(Fvtud`GiTn

    - Diƒ. s(µcdin>d (s>hi - aAYiy) a¹yx

  • 11 (Ds[.,1946 - Diƒ. rij[ºW p\sid - AYiy) a¹yx

  • 13 (Ds[.,1946 - jvihrlilnh[$a[ a](thi(skuØ[Æy p\Ativrj* kyi[<

  • 22 jiºy&.,1947 - uØ[Æy p\Ativ Av)kirkyi[<

  • 16 nv[. 1949 - b>FirNni[ Av)kirYyi[

    {b>FirN (nmi<Nn&> kiy< 2 vP<, 11 m(hni an[ 18 (dvs, 166 b[qk bid p*N< Yy&>}

  • lgBg 70 Tki Big BirtSisn a(F(nym-1935 mi>Y) l[vimi> aiÄyi[ C[.

  • 60 d[Si[ni b>FirNni[ a¿yiskyi[<.

  • 26 nv[. 1949ni> ri[j Av)kZtBirt)y b>FirNmi> 22 Big, 395 an&. an[ 8 an&s*(c{p(r(SOT} ht).

  • 26 jiºy&.,1950ni ri[jY) b>FirNni[ aml S$ Yyi[


Birt y b firnni a ii t
Birt)y b>FirNni[ A#ii[t

  • E>³l[ºD -

  • s>sd)y Sisn p\Nil) ,

  • a[kl nig(rkti,

  • kiydi (nmi<Nn) p\(k|yi,

  • kiydiniSisnni[ (vcir,

  • bh&mtniaiFir[ c*>TN)mi> Jtni[ (nN<y,

  • (vFinsBimi> a¹yxn&> pd an[ t[n) B*(mki

  • am[(rki -

  • mi](lk a(Fkiri[

  • ºyi(ykp&nrivli[kn

  • b>FirNn) svi[<µcti

  • ºyiypi(lkin) Avt>#iti


  • riOT^p(t an[ t[ni pr mhi(Byi[g,

  • upriOT^p(t, uµctm an[ uµc ºyiyilyi[ni ºyiyiF)Si[n[ hTivvin) p\(k|yi

  • niNik)y kTi[kT)

  • aiyrl[ºD -

  • rijyni n)(t (nd[<Sk (sÜi>t

  • f|i>s -

  • Avt>#iti, sminti an[ b>F&Rvni[ (sÜi>t

  • k[niDi -

  • s>GiRmkÄyvAYi {f[Drl (sATm}

  • av(SOT S(ktai[ni[ (sÜi>t

  • jm<n) -

  • kTi[kT) dr(myinriOT^p(tni mi](lk a(Fkiri[


  • r(Syi -

  • m*LB*t frji[

  • ai[AT^[(lyi -

  • p\Ativnin) BiPi

  • smvt)< s*(c

  • k[ºW an[ rijyvµc[ni[ s>b>F tYi S(ktn&> (vBijn

  • d(xNai(f|ki-

  • b>FirN)y s>Si[Fnn) p\(k|yi

  • jipin -

  • kiydioiriAYi(pt p\(k|yi


Birtn b firn aim k
Birtn&> b>FirNaim&K

“ am[, Birtnili[ki[, Birtn[ siv<Bi]m, smijvid), (bnsi>p\di(yk, li[kSih), p\jis_iik s>AYi(pt krvin&> an[ t[nitmim nig(rki[ miT[:

simi(jk, ai(Y<k an[ rijk)y ºyiy ;

(vcir, a(BÄy(kt, miºyti, Fm< an[ upisnin) Avt>#iti, drjji

an[ tkn) sminti;

(n(átkrvini[ an[ t[mnimi> Äy(ktn&> gi]rv an[ riOT^n) a[kti an[ aK>(Dttin) Kitr) aipt) b>F&ti (vksivvini[ g>B)rtip*v<k (nN<y kr)n[ , aij[ ti.26 nv[. 1949ni ri[j, amir) b>FirNsBimi> ai b>FirNapniv)n[ t[n[ kiydin&> $p aip)n[ am[ amir) jitn[ sm(p<t kr)a[ C)a[.”


Birt)y b>FirNmi> k&l 25 Big {k|min&sir 22}, 444 an&µC[d {k|min&sir 395} an[ 12 an&s*(c C[.Big -1 s>G an[ t[ni[ p\d[S {The Union and the Territory)

  • an&. 1 s>Gn&> nim an[ t[ni[ p\d[S

  • an&. 2 nvirijyi[ni[ p\v[S aYviAYipni

  • an&. 3 nvirijyi[n) AYipni an[ a(AtRvFrivti

    rijyi[ni (vAtiri[, srhdi[ aYvinimi[mi f[rfir

  • an&. 4 an&. 2 an[ an&. 3 h[qLYy[l kiydiai[ ph[l)

    an[ ci[Y) an&s*(cmi> s&Firi an[ an&p*rk

    ain&S>(gk an[ p(rNi(mkbibti[ (vS[ ji[gviEkrS[


Big 2 nig rkrv citizenship
Big -2 nig(rkRv {Citizenship}

  • an&. 5 b>FirNni p\ir>B[ nig(rkRv

  • an&. 6 pi(kAtinmi>Y) AYLi>trkr) Birtmi> aiv[l k[Tl)k

    Äy(ktai[ni nig(rkRvni a(Fkiri[

  • an&. 7 pi(kAtinmi> AYLi>trkr[l Äy(ktai[n&> nig(rkRv

  • an&. 8 m*L Birtn) pr>t& Birtbhirrh[t) k[Tl)k Äy(ktai[ni

    nig(rkRvni a(Fkiri[

  • an&. 9 Av[µCia[ (vd[S) nig(rkRv

  • an&. 10 nig(rkRvni a(Fkiri[n&> sitRy

  • an&. 11 nig(rkRv a>g[ kiydi[ GDvin) s>sdn) s_ii


Big 3 m lb t a fkiri fundamental rights 12 to 35
Big -3 m*LB*t a(Fkiri[ (Fundamental Rights – 12 to 35)

  • an&. 12 Äyi²yi {rijy, AYi(nks_ii(Fkir) an[ aºy

    s_ii(Fkir)ni[ aY<}

  • an&. 13 m*L a(Fkiri[n[ as>gt an[ (vr&¹F kiydiai[

    smintini[ a(Fkir(Right to equality)

  • an&. 14 kiydismxsminti, smin s>rxN

  • an&. 15 Fm<, ji(t,Xi(t,(l>g aYvijºmAYinnikirNi[sr B[dBiv pr p\(tb>F

  • 15{1} - ki[E (vS[P Fm< k[ ji(t vg[r[niki[E Äy(ktn) siY[ rijy b)ji Fm< k[

    ji(tn) Äy(ktai[n) srKimN)mi> mi#iaiaiFir[ pxpitkr) Sk[ n(h>

  • 15{2} - jih[rAYLi[ pr B[dBiv pr p\(tb>F

  • 15{3} - A#i)ai[ an[ biLki[ miT[ Kisji[gviE


  • 15{4} - pCit vg< miT[ Kisji[gviEai[ {b>FirNni p\Yms&Firi[,1951 oiri um[rvimiaiÄyi[.}

  • ni[>F - srkir) s[viai[mi> airxNmiT[ 1953mi> kikikil[lkraiyi[g - BlimNi[ni[ aAv)kir

    1978 mi m>Dl aiyi[g - BlimNi[ni[ Av)kir

    an&. 15{4} p\miN[ pCitpN&> a[Tl[ simi(jk an[ S]x(Nk r)t[ pCitsmjv&>

  • 15{5} - S]x(Nk s>AYiai[mi> animt {20 jiºy&. 2006 Y) 93mi[ b>FirN)y s&Firi[, 2005 p\miN[ an&. 15{5} um[rvimi> aiÄyi[.}

    - S]x(Nk s>AYiai[mi> srkir) an&din p\i¼t aYvi p\i¼t n hi[y t[v) b>n[ p\kirn) King) S]x(Nk s>AYiai[ni[ smiv[S. pr>t& an&. 30{1} p\miN[ lG&mt) S]x(Nk s>AYiai[ ai an&. h[qLaivS[ n(h>.

  • an&. 16 - jih[r ri[jgir)n) bibtmi> tkn) sminti(Equality of opportunities in matters of public employments)

  • an&. 17 - aApZÆytini[ a>t (Abolition of untouchability)

  • an&. 18 - EÃkibi[n) nib*d) (Abolition of titles)


Avit yni a fkir right to freedom
Avit>#yni[ a(Fkir(Right to Freedom)

  • an&. 19 - viN) Avit>#y vg[r[ k[Tlik a(Fkiri[

    bFi nig(rki[n[ :

  • 1. viN) Avit>#y an[ a(BÄy(ktAvit>#y

  • 2. Si>(tY) an[ SA#ii[ (vni B[giYvin&> Avit>#y

  • 3. m>DLi[ aYvi s>Gi[ rcvin&> Avit>#y

  • 4. Birtni p\d[Smi> gm[ Ryi> m&ktpN[ frvin&> Avit>#y

  • 5. Birtni p\d[Smi> ki[EpNBigmi> (nviskrvin&> an[ AYiy) Yvin&> Avit>#y

  • 6. gm[ t[ ÄyvsiyaYvikimkij, v[piraYvi F>Fi[ krvin&> Avit>#y

  • ni[>F - 44mi> b>FirN)y s&Firi{1978}Y) (mlktAvit>#yni[ m*LB*t a(Fkir rd krvimi> aiÄyi[ C[.


  • an&. 20 - g&niai[ miT[ di[P(s(Ü sb>Fmi> rxN

  • an&. 21 - Jvn an[ Sir)(rkAvit>#yn&> rxN

  • 44mi> b>FirN)y s&Firi{1978}Y) Jvn an[ Äy(ktgtAvit>#yni a(Fkirn[ kTi[kT)n) (AY(tmi> pN smi¼t k[ (s(mtkr) Skiynh)>

  • ni[>F - s>(vFin s>Si[Fn a(F(nym,2002 oiri an&. 21{a} ji[D) (Sxin[ mi](lk a(Fkirni[ drjji[ p\din kr) srkirrijyoiri (nFi<(rtkiydim&jb 6 Y) 14 vP<nibiLki[n[ mft an[ a(nviy< (SxNaipS[.

  • an&. 22 - k[Tlik p\s>gi[mi> FrpkD an[ aTkiytsim[ rxN

  • (v(vF (nvirkaTkiytji[gvieai[ :

  • 1. (nvirkaTkiytji[gviE , 1950 {1969mi> smi¼t}

  • {Preventive Detention Act, 1950 (repealed in 1969)}

  • 2. ai>t(rks&rxiÄyvAYi a(F(nym,1971 {1979mi> smi¼t}

  • {Maintenance of Internal Security Act, 1971- MISA (repealed in 1979)}

  • 3. (vd[S) m&Wi s>rxNtYitAkr) (nvirN a(F(nym,1974

  • (The Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Act,1974)

  • 4. riOT^)y s&rxi a(F(nym,1980 (National Security Act, 1980)


  • 5. ait>kvid an[ (v¹v>Sk g(t(v(F {(nri[Fk} a(F(nym, 1985 {1995mi> smi¼t}

    {Terrorist and Descruptive Activities (prevention) Act, 1985 (TADA, repealed in 1995)}

  • 6. ait>kvid (nri[F) a(F(nym,2002 {2004mi> smi¼t}

    {Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002 (POTA, repealed in 2004)}

    Si[PN (vr&¹Fni[ a(Fkir

    (Right against Exploitation)

  • an&. 23 - mn&Oy v[pir an[ bLmj*r) pr p\(tb>F {Prohibition of Traffic in human beings and forced Labour)

  • an&. 24 - kirKiniai[ vg[r[mi> biLki[n) ri[jgir) pr p\(tb>F {Prohibition of Children in factories ,etc.)


Fi m k avit yni a fkir right to freedom of religion
Fi(m<k Avit>#yni[ a(Fkir(Right to Freedom of Religion)

  • an&. 25 - a>t:krN m&kt r)t[ Fm<n) miºyti,piln an[ p\cirn&> Avit>#y

  • an&. 26 – Fi(m<k bibti[ni[ vh)vTkrvin&> Avit>#y

  • an&. 27 - ci[Ês Fm<n) a(BvZ(Ü miT[ kr c*kvN)n&> Avit>#y

  • an&. 28 - ci[Ês S]x(Nk s>AYiai[mi> Fi(m<k (SxN k[ Fi(m<k upisnimi> hijr) a>g[n&> Avit>#y

    si>AkZ(tk an[ S]x(Nk a(Fkiri[ (Cultural and Educational Rights)

  • an&. 29 - lG&mt)ai[ni> (hti[n&> rxN

  • an&. 30 - S]x(Nk s>Ayiai[ AYipvini[ an[ t[ni[ vh)vTkrvini[ lG&mt)ai[ni[ a(Fkir


B firn y upciri ni a fkir right to constitutional remedies
b>FirN)y upciri[ni[ a(Fkir(Right to Constitutional Remedies)

  • an&. 32 - Big-3 oiriapiy[l a(Fkiri[ni[ amlkrvvimiT[ni[ upcir

    1. Big-3 oiriapiy[l a(Fkiri[niamlmiT[ svi[<µc adiltpis[ did migvini a(Fkirn) bih[>Fr) aipvimi> aiv[l C[.

    2. Big-3 oiriapiy[l a(Fkiri[niamlmiT[ svi[<µc adiltn[ s*cni[ aYvih&kmi[ aYvi b>d) p\Ryx)krN, prmid[S, p\(tP[F, a(Fkir-pZµCi an[ uRp\[PN Av$pniaiXip#ii[ s(htniyi[³y aiXip#ii[ aipvin) s_iirh[S[.

    an&. 32 p\miN[ r)T{aiXip#ii[}

  • b>d) p\Ryx)krN {Habeas Corpus)

  • prmid[S (Mandamus)

  • p\(tP[F (Prohibition)

  • uRp\[PN (Certiorari)

  • a(Fkir-pZµCi(Quo-Warranto)


M lb t a fkiri
m*LB*t a(Fkiri[

  • smintini[ a(Fkir - an&. 14 Y) 18

  • Avt>#itini[ a(Fkir - an&. 19 Y) 22

  • Si[PN (v$¹Fni[ a(Fkir - an&. 23 Y) 24

  • Fi(m<k Avit>#yni[ a(Fkir - an&. 25 Y) 28

  • si>AkZ(tk an[ S]x(Nk a(Fkir - an&. 29 Y) 30

  • b>FirN)y Elijni[ a(Fkir - an&. 32


Big 4 an 36 y 51 rijyn tni mig ds k s fi ti directive principle of state policy
Big-4 an&. 36 Y) 51rijyn)(tnimig<dS<k (s¹Fi>ti[ {Directive Principle of State Policy)

  • aiy<l[ºDni b>FirNmi>Y) l[vimi> aiÄyi {1937}{k[ j[ Ap[n)S b>FirNmi>Y) nklkrvimi> aiÄyihti}

  • Diƒ.b).air.ai>b[Dkr[ ai (s¹Fi>ti[n[ Birtni b>FirNn&> 'nv)n lxN" (Novel Features} tr)k[ vN<v[l.

  • rijyn) frji[ni[ (nd[<S kr[ C[.

  • (nd[<SktRvi[ni[ uØ[Æy

  • sim*(hk r)t[ Birtmi> ai(Y<k tYisimi(jkli[kSih)n) rcni an[ kÃyiNkir) rijyAYipvin&>>

  • nig(rki[ p\Ry[n) n](tkfrji[ dSi<v[ C[

  • b>FirNniaim&Kmi> j[ aidSi[<n[ p\i¼t krvin) kÃpnikrvimi> aiv[l C[ t[ p\i¼t krvimiT[ mig< c)>F[ C[.

  • (nd[<SktRvi[ni mi¹ymY) BirtrijyniaidSi[< an[ lÈyn) gNnikrvimi> aiv[ C[


  • an&. 36 - Äyi²yi

  • rijy S¾dni[ aY< b>FirNni Big-3 mi an&. 12mi> ai¼yi[ C[ a[j p\miN[ YS[, (sviy k[ s>dB<Y) (vr&¹Fn) ji[gviEÄyktYt) hi[y.

  • rijyn) Äyi²yi p\miN[ t[mi> k[ºW srkir, dr[k rijysrkir, s>sd, rijy (vFinsBitYiBirtsrkirni (ny>#iNh[qLnitmimAYi(nk k[ aºys_ii(Fkir)ai[ni[smiv[S Yiy C[. aiY) rijyn)(tnimig<dS<k (s¹Fi>ti[ni[ amlkrvin) frjmi#i k[ºW k[ rijysrkirn) n(h>, pr>t& AYi(nks_iiai[n) pN C[

  • ai (s¹Fi>ti[ mig<dS<k C[ an[ kiydik)y r)t[ t[ni[ amlkrvirijy b>Fiy[l nY). pr>t& pi[tin) n)(t GDt) vKt[ ai (s¹Fi>ti[ni[ amlkrvin) rijyn) n](tkfrj C[ kirNk[ aiji[gviEtmimn[ simi(jk, rijk)y t[mjai(Y<k ºyiymL) rh[ t[v) smijrcniAYipvini[ p\yRnkrvini[ aid[S aipt) ji[gviE C[.

  • ºyiyt>#ioirimig<dS<k (s¹Fi>ti[ni[ amlkrvin) ji[gviE b>FirNmi> nY).


  • an&. 37 - ai (vBigmi> smi(vOT(s¹Fi>ti[n) p\y&(kt(Application of Principles Contained in this Part)

  • ai(s¹Fi>ti[ adilt) kiy<x[#imi>Y) bikitriKvimi> aiÄyi C[

  • mig<dS<k (s¹Fi>ti[ b[ lix(Nktiai[ Friv[ C[

  • {1} ji[ ki[E (s¹Fi>tni[ rijyaml n kr[, ti[ kiydin) adiltY) t[niamlmiT[n) rijyn[ frjpiD) Skit) nY)

  • {2} riOT^ni s>cilnmi> t[ m*LB*t C[ an[ kiydiai[ GDt) vKt[[ t[ni[ amlkrvin) rijyn) frjrh[S[.

  • mig<dS<k (s¹Fi>ti[n) ji[gviEai[ b>FirNn) aºyji[gviEai[n[ aiF)n C[ aiY) mig<dS<k (s¹Fi>ti[, b>FirNn) aºyki[E ji[gviEsiY[ s>GP<mi> hi[y, Ryi> amlkriv) Skiynh)>.

  • an&. 38 - li[ki[nikÃyiNn) vZ(Ü miT[n) smijÄyvAYirijy (sÜkrS[ (State to secure a social order for the Promotion of welfare of the people)

  • simi(jk, ai(Y<k tYirijk)y ºyiyY) riOT^)y Jvnn) tmim s>AYiai[ mi(htgirYy[l hi[y t[v) simi(jkÄyvAYi Sky t[Tl) asrkirk r)t[ (sÜkr)n[ an[ t[n[ rxNaip)n[ rijyli[k kÃyiNn) vZ(Ü miT[ p\yRnkrS[.

  • rijyfktÄy(ktai[ vµc[ nh)>, pr>t& algalg (vAtiri[mi> rh[tiaYvialgalgÄyvsiyi[mi> ri[kiy[lili[ki[ni j*Yi[ vµc[ pNaivkn) asmintiai[C) krvini[ p\yRnkrS[ t[mjdrjji[, sgvDi[ an[ tki[n) asminti nib*d krvini[ p\yRnkrS[.


  • an&. 39 - n)(tnici[Ês (s¹Fi>ti[ rijyan&srS[ (Certain principles of policy to be followed by the state)

  • 39{a[} - p&r&P an[ A#i) nig(rki[n[ aiJ(vkin&> p*rt&> siFn m[Lvvini[ smin a(Fkir

  • 39{b)} - smijn) Bi](tksiFnsimg\)n) mi(lk) an[ (ny>#iNn&> (vtrNli[k(ht u_im r)t[ siF) Skiy t[ r)t[ Yiy

  • Bi](tksiFnsimg\)mi> k&drt) an[ Bi](tksimg\)n) siY[ j>gm an[ AYivr (mlktni[ pNsmiv[S Yiy C[

  • 39{s)} - aY<t>#in&> s>ciln a[v) r)t[ Yiy k[ j[Y) s>p(t an[ uRpidnni> siFni[n) jmivT an[ li[k(htn[ n&ksin n Yiy

  • 39{D)} - p&r&Pi[ an[ A#i)ai[ b>n[n[ a[ksrKi> kimmiT[ smin v[tnmL[

  • smin v[tnFiri[,1976 h[qLA#i)-p&r&P b>n[n[ smin v[tn pr>t& algalg S]x(Nkliykiti[niaiFir[ algpgirFi[rN hi[E Sk[.

  • kimcliu, krirY) kim[ rKiy[l k[ a[Dhi[k Fi[rN[ (nmiy[likimdiri[ (ny(mt km<cir)ai[n) j[m smin v[tn m[Lvvini[ a(FkirFrivtinY)

  • “sminkimsmin v[tn” ni[ (s¹Fi>t kimn) p\kZ(t, kd, kiy<n) jvibdir)ai[ vg[r[ pr aiFirriK[ C[

  • 39 {E} - p&r&P an[ A#i) kimdiri[ni> airi[³y an[ S(ktni[ an[ biLki[n) k&mL) vyni[ d*r&pyi[g n Yiy, an[ ai(Y<k j$(ryitnikirN[ t[mn) u>mr k[ S(ktn[ an&k*L n hi[y t[vi ri[jgirmi> ji[Divin) nig(rki[n[ frj n pD[

  • 39{a[f} - biLki[n[ AvAY r)t[ an[ Avit>#y an[ gi]rvy&kt (AY(tmi> (vkisn) tki[ an[ sgvDi[ aipvimi> aiv[, an[ biLki[ tYiy&vini[n[ Si[PN sim[ an[ t[mn) n](tk an[ ai(Y<k up[xi sim[ rxNmL[


  • an&. 39 a[ - sminºyiy an[ mft kin*n) shiy(Equal Justice and free legal aid)

  • rijy, kin*n) p\YiniamlY) smintkniFi[rN[ ºyiyni[ uRkP< sFiy t[m krS[

  • ai(Y<k an[ aºyasmY<tiai[nikirN[ ki[[EpN nig(rkn[ ºyiy m[LvvimiT[n) tki[ni[ Eºkirkrvimi> nh)> aiv[, t[ miT[ yi[jniai[ aYviaºy r)t[ mft kin*n) shiyn) ji[gviEkrS[

  • - Legal Services Authorities Act, 1976

  • - fi[jdir) kiy<vih)ni[ kiydi[, 1973 n) klm 304mi> airip)n[ mft kin*n) shiyn) ji[gviEkrvimi> aiv[l C[

  • an&. 40 - g\im p>ciyti[n) AYipni

  • g\im p>ciyti[n) rcnikr), t[mn[ j$r) s_ii an[ a(Fkiri[ apiS[

  • an&. 41 - k[Tlik p\s>gi[mi> kim, (SxN an[ mddni[ a(Fkir

  • simi(jks&rxini[ h[t& dSi<v[ C[

  • rijy[ pi[tin) ai(Y<k xmti an[ (vkisn) myi<dimi> rh)n[ {1} ri[jgir), {2} (SxN an[ {3} b[kir), vZÜivAYi, mi>dg) an[ ap>gtini p\s>g[ an[ (vni vi>k[ Bi[gvv) pDt) t>g)ni p\s>gi[mi>, jih[r mddaipvin) frjbn) rh[ C[


  • an&. 42 - kimn) ºyiy) an[ minv)y Srti[ an[ p\s*(t riht

  • kiydiai[ :

  • - kimdirrijy v)mi Firi[, 1948

  • - bi[ns Firi[

  • - p\s*(t liBFiri[, 1961

  • - g\[µy&ET) Firi[

  • ni[>F :- svi[<µc adilt[ a[k k[smi> qriviy[l C[ k[ kimni AYL[ s_ii(Fkir)nih&kmi[ni> pilnY) ki>E g&lim) kh[viynh)> an[ t[niY) ki[E Äy(ktnik&drt) a(Fkiri[ni[ B>g Yti[ nY)

  • an&. 43 - kimdiri[ miT[ (nvi<h v[tn vg[r[

  • rijyn[ kimdiri[ miT[ kim, yi[³y (nvi<h v[tn t[mj (SOT JvnFi[rN an[ kimdiri[n[ nvriSnismymi> simi(jk an[ si>AkZ(tk (vkismiT[ p*rt) tki[ mL) rh[ t[ miT[ p\yRnkrvijNiviy[l C[.

  • (nvi<h v[tn a[Tl[ a[v&> v[tn k[ j[niY) kimdir, airi[³y an[ Bi](tks&Kikir) miT[ j$r) hi[y, t[ tmimvAt&ai[ pi[tinik&T&>bn[ aip) Sk[

  • g\im (vAtiri[mi> Äy(ktgtaYvishkir) Fi[rN[ gZhuFi[gi[n[ u_i[jnaipvini[ p\yRnkrS[.

  • an&. 43 a[ - uwi[gi[nivh)vTmi> kimdiri[n) sim[lg)r)

  • rijy, yi[³y (v(F(vFinY) aYviaºy r)t[, ki[E uwi[gmi> ri[kiy[lisihsi[, s>AYiai[ aYviaºy s>gqni[nivh)vTmi> kimdiri[ Big l[tiYiy t[m krvipgli> l[S[


  • an&. 44 - nig(rki[ miT[ smin d)vin) kiydi[

  • k[Tlikkiydiai[ Fi(m<k (rviji[ pr aiFi(rt C[. t[n[ rd kr)n[ smin d)vin) kiydi[ GDvin) migN) C[ÃliGNi> vPi[<Y) uq[l) C[. t[m n YviY) smijni a[k vg<n[ aºyiyYti[ rh[ C[.

  • di.t. Sihbin* b[gmni k[sY) fi[jdir) kiy<vih)ni[ kiydi[,1973n) klm 125 h[qL m&(AlmA#i)n[ pN t[ kiydi h[qLBrNpi[PN migvini[ hÊhti[. pr>t& svi[<µc adiltniai (nN<y pC) m&(AlmA#i)ai[niBrNpi[PN miT[ algkiydi[ GDiyi[ C[.

  • virsi a(Fkir, C*TiC[Di vg[r[ an[k bibti[mi> a>gtkiydiai[ dr[k Fm<nialgalg C[. k[Tlik a>gtkiydiai[Y) A#i)ai[n[ Kiskr)n[ (vS[P aºyiyYyi[ C[.

  • t[Y) smin d)vin) kiydi[ d[S miT[ bnivvin) j$r C[.

  • an&. 45 - biLki[ miT[ mft an[ fr(jyit (SxNn) ji[gviE

  • b>FirNn) S$aitY) dsvP<nismymi> rijy, tmimbiLki[n[ t[mn) ci]d vP<n) u>mr p*r) YiyRyi> s&F), mft an[ fr(jyit (SxNaipvin) ji[gviEni[ p\yRnkrS[.

  • ni[>F - kmns)b[ ai¹y[y aijs&F) p*N< Yy&> nY).


  • an&. 46 - an&s*(ct ji(t, an&s*(ct jnji(t an[ aºy nbLi vgi[<ni> S]x(Nk an[ ai(Y<k (hti[n) uºn(t

  • rijy, li[ki[ni nbLi vgi[<ni an[ Kis kr)n[ ans*(ct ji(t an[ jnji(tai[ni> S]x(Nk an[ ai(Y<k (hti[n) uºn(t (vS[P kiLJY) krS[ an[ simi(jk aºyiy an[ tmim p\kirni Si[PN sim[ t[mn&> rxN krS[.

  • nbLi vgi[<n) Äyi²yi b>FirNmi> aipvimi> aiv) nY). m>Dl k(mSnni k[smi qriviy[l C[ k[ ai S¾d pCit vg< S¾d krti (vSiL aY< Friv[ C[. t[mi> ai(Y<k gr)biE k[ aºy kirNi[sr nbLi bn[l hi[y, t[vi tmim vgi[<ni[ smiv[S Yiy C[.

  • an&. 47 - pi[PNn&> Atr an[ JvnFi[rN U>c& livvin) an[ jih[r airi[³y s&Firvin) rijyn) frj

  • rijymi> li[ki[ni pi[PNn&> Atr an[ JvnFi[rN U>ci livvi an[ jih[r airi[³y s&Firvin[ rijy pi[tin) p\iY(mk frji[ gNS[.

  • rijy, ai]PFni h[t&ai[ (sviy, midk p)Nini t[mj airi[³yn[ hi(nkirk pdiYi[<ni upyi[g pr p\(tb>F m*kvini[ p\yRn krS[.


  • an&. 48 - K[t) an[ Qi[r uC[r a>g[ ÄyvAYi

  • K[t) an[ Qi[r uC[rn) aiF&(nk an[ v]Xi(nk Fi[rN[ ÄyvAYi krvini[ p\yRn

  • giyi[ an[ viCrDi>ai[[ an[ aºy d*FiLi> an[ Birvihk Qi[ri[n) ai[lidi[ jiLv) riKvi an[ t[mn) s&FirNi krvini[ an[ t[mn) ktl pr p\(tb>F m*kvini[.

  • an&. 48 a[ - pyi<vrNn&> rxN an[ s&FirNi an[ j>gl t[mj vºy Jvi[n) slimt)n&> rxN

  • kiydiai[ :-

    - pyi<vrN {rxN} Firi[, 1986,

    - vºy Jvi[ {rxN} Firi[, 1972,

    - j>gl {s>rxN} Firi[, 1980

  • an&. 49 - Amirki[ an[ riOT^)y agRy Frivti> AYLi[ an[ pdiYi[<n&> rxN

  • s>sdni kiydiY) aYvi t[ h[qL riOT^)y mhRv tr)k[ jih[r kr[l kliRmk k[ a](thi(sk mhRv Friviti> Amirk aYvi AYL aYvi pdiY<n&>, yYip\s>g m&jb l*>TfiT, (vkZ(t, (vniS, AYLi>tr, (nkil aYvi (nkis sim[ rxN krvin) rijyn) frj rh[S[.


  • an&. 50 - ºyiyt>#in&> kiri[bir)Y) (vBijn

  • rijy, rijy s[viai[mi> ºyiyt>#in[ kiri[bir)Y) alg krvi pgli BrS[.

  • an&. 51 - ai>trriOT^)y Si>(t an[ slimt)n[ uºn(t

  • 51{a[} - ai>trriOT^)y Si>(t an[ slimt)n) uºn(t miT[,

  • 51{b)} - riOT^i[ vµc[ ºyiy) an[ minp*v<kni s>b>Fi[ jiLvvi miT[

  • 51{s)} - s>g(qt p\jiai[ni arsprsni Äyvhirmi> ai>trriOT^)y kiydi an[ s>(Fai[n[ lgt) frji[ p\Ry[ni[ aidr vFirvi

  • 51{D)} - ai>trriOT^)y p\âi[n&> (nrikirN lvid) oiri krvin[ u_i[jn aipvi p\yRn krS[.


  • an&. 51 a[ - m*LB*t frji[ (Fundamental Duties)

  • 42mi[ b>FirN)y s&Firi, 1976 Y) m*LB*t frji[ um[rvimi> aiv).

  • frji[ nig(rki[n) C[, rijyn) nh)>

  • frji[ni[ bribramlYiy t[ miT[ kiydi[ GDvi[ j$r) C[

  • frji[ni[ amlnh)> krnirÄy(ktsim[ prmid[Sn&> aiXip#ifrmiv) Skiynh)>

  • m*LB*t frji[ :-

  • {1} b>FirNn[ vfidirrh[vin) an[ t[niaidSi[< an[ s>AYiai[ni[, riOT^¹vj an[ riOT^g)tni[ aidrkrvin)

  • - riOT^g)t gviyRyir[ UBiYviY) riOT^g)t trfaidrbtiÄyi[ gNiy pr>t& g)t givimi> ki[E ji[Diynh)>, ti[[ t[niY) anidrYti[ nY)

  • {2} aizid) miT[n) riOT^)y lDtn[ p\[rNiaipniruµcaidSi[<n[ ãdymi> s>Grvi an[ t[n[ an&srvin)

  • {3} Birtni> siv<Bi]mRv, a[kti an[ aK>(Dttin&> smY<n krvin) an[ t[n&> rxNkrvin)

  • {4} d[Sn&> rxNkrvin) an[ riOT^)y s[vi bjivvin) hiklYiyRyir[ t[m krvin)


  • {5} Fi(m<k, BiPik)y, p\id[(Sk aYvi (vBig)y mtB[di[Y) pr rh)n[ Birtni tmim li[ki[ vµc[ s>vi(dti AYipvin) tYi B\itZBivn) Bivni k[Lvvin) an[ A#i)ai[ni gi]rvn[ hi(nkirk Äyvhiri[ni[ Ryig krvin)

  • {6} aipN) s>yi[(jt s>AkZ(tni smZÜ virsin[ sºminvin) tYi t[n&> rxN krvin)

  • {7} vni[, sri[vri[, nd)ai[ an[ vºy p\iN) s(ht k&drt) pyi<vrNn&> rxN krvin) an[ t[n) s&FirNi krvin), an[ Jvi[ p\Ry[ an&k>pi dSi<vvin)

  • {8} v]Xi(nk mins, minvtivid an[ (jXisivZ(t tYi s&Firividn) Bivni k[Lvvin)

  • {9} jih[r (mlktn&> rxN krvin) an[ (h>sini[ Ryig krvin)

  • {10} riOT^ p&r&PiY< an[ (s(Üni uµctr tbÊiai[ BN) stt p\g(t krt&> rh[ t[ miT[, Äy(ktgt an[ sim*(hk p\vZ(tai[ni tmim x[#i[ uRkZOTti p\i¼t krvini[ p\yRn krvin)


N t nd sk trvi an m lb t a fkiri mi tfivt b n a kb jini p rk c
n)(t ( rh)n[ Birtni tmim li[ki[ vµc[ s>vi(dti AYipvin) tYi B\itZBivn) Bivni k[Lvvin) an[ A#i)ai[ni gi]rvn[ hi(nkirk Äyvhiri[ni[ Ryig krvin)nd[<SktRvi[ an[ m*LB*t a(Fkiri[mi> tfivtb>n[ a[kb)jini p*rk C[

  • m*LB*t a(Fkiri[

  • m*LB*t a(Fkiradiltoiriamlmi> m*k) Skiy C[.

  • m&²y uØ[S sminti, Avt>#ititYiminvmiT[ j$r) aºy a(Fkiri[ p\din kr)n[ rijn](tk p\jit>#in) AYipni

  • nkiriRmk C[ kirN k[ t[ rijyniam&kkiyi[<n[ p\(tb>(Ft kr[ C[ aYi<t` rijyn[ B[dBivkrvi pr, Avt>#iti, smintitYisi>AkZ(tkAvt>#itin&> rxNkrvimiT[ bi¹y kr[ C[.

  • Äy(ktai[n[ p\din kr)n[ rijn](tkli[kSih)n) AYipnikrvimi> aiv) C[

  • n)(t (nd[<SktRvi[

  • n)(t (nd[<SktRvi[ adiltoiriamlmi> m*k) SkitinY).

  • m&²y uØ[S simi(jktYiai(Y<k ºyiyniaiFir pr rijn](tkÄyvAYin[ AYi(pt krvini[

  • skiriRmk C[ kirN k[ t[ rijyn[ (n(átkiy< krvini[ (nd[<S aip[ C[

  • ai(Y<k li[kSih) tYikÃyiNkir) rijyn) AYipnikrvini[ p\yiskrvimi> aiÄyi[ C[.


  • m*LB*t a( rh)n[ Birtni tmim li[ki[ vµc[ s>vi(dti AYipvin) tYi B\itZBivn) Bivni k[Lvvin) an[ A#i)ai[ni gi]rvn[ hi(nkirk Äyvhiri[ni[ Ryig krvin)Fkiri[

  • an&. 20 tYi 21mi> dSi<v[l m*LB*t a(Fkir (sviyaºy a(Fkiri[n[ kTi[kT) dr(myin AY(gtkr) Skiy

  • m*LB*t a(Fkiri[ a>(tm (extreme)nY) kirN k[ t[ni pr (vS[P p(r(AY(tmi> p\(tb>F lgiv) Skiy

  • kiydismxsminti, BiPN an[ a(BÄy(ktn) Avt>#iti, Jvn an[ Äy(ktgtAvt>#itini[ a(FkirtYiki[E pN Fm<n[ minvin) Avt>#iti vg[r[ rijn](tkli[kSih)n) AYipnini[ aiFirbniv[ C[.

  • kiydik)y mhRv C[.

    n)(t (nd[<SktRvi[

  • n)(t (nd[<SktRvi[ ki[EpN (AY(tmi> AY(gtkr) Skiynh)>.

  • a>(tm C[ an[ t[ni pr ki[EpN p(r(AY(tmi> p\(tb>F lgiv) Skiy n(h>.

  • ai(Y<k x[#imi> li[kSih)n) AYipni pr Bir m*k[l C[. ai (sÜi>ti[ an&sirrijy Bi](tksiFni[ s)(mtli[ki[nihiYmi> k[(ºWt n Yvi> d[titYiuRpidnnisiFni[n[ siv<j(nk (hti[niupyi[g miT[ pi[tin) vcnbÜti p\d(S<t kr[ C[.

  • n](tk aid[S mi#i C[


N t nd sk trvi n vg krn
n)(t ( rh)n[ Birtni tmim li[ki[ vµc[ s>vi(dti AYipvin) tYi B\itZBivn) Bivni k[Lvvin) an[ A#i)ai[ni gi]rvn[ hi(nkirk Äyvhiri[ni[ Ryig krvin)nd[<SktRvi[n&> vg)<krN

  • {1} simiºy li[ki[n[ ai(Y<k ºyiy upl¾F krivti> (nd[<Sk tRvi[ :-

  • - ai vg<n) a>t<gt t[ (nd[<Sk tRvi[ sim[l C[ k[ j[ rijymi> ai(Y<k p\jit>#i AYi(pt krvini> uØ[SY) (nd[<(St krvimi> aiv[l C[. j[ n)c[ m&jb C[.

  • an&. 39 - n)(tni ci[Ês (s¹Fi>ti[ rijy an&srS[.

  • an&. 41 - k[Tlik p\s>gi[mi> kim, (SxN an[ mddni[ a(Fkir

  • an&. 42 - kimn) ºyiy) an[ minv)y Srti[ an[ p\s*(t riht

  • an&. 43 - kimdiri[ miT[ (nvi<h v[tn vg[r[

  • an&. 46 - an&s*(ct ji(t, an&s*(ct jnji(t an[ aºy nbLi vgi[<ni> S]x(Nk an[ ai(Y<k (hti[n) uºn(t

  • an&. 47 - pi[PNn&> Atr an[ JvnFi[rN U>c& livvin) an[ jih[r airi[³y s&Firvin) rijyn) frj

  • an&. 48 - K[t) an[ Qi[r uC[r a>g[ ÄyvAYi


  • {2} rh)n[ Birtni tmim li[ki[ vµc[ s>vi(dti AYipvin) tYi B\itZBivn) Bivni k[Lvvin) an[ A#i)ai[ni gi]rvn[ hi(nkirk Äyvhiri[ni[ Ryig krvin)simiºyli[ki[n[ simi(jk ºyiy upl¾F krivti> (nd[<SktRvi[ :-

  • uØ[S simi(jkli[k kÃyiNn) AYipnikrvini[

  • an&. 39 a[ - sminºyiy an[ mft kin*n) shiy

  • an&. 44 - nig(rki[ miT[ smin d)vin) kiydi[

  • an&. 45 - biLki[ miT[ mft an[ fr(jyit (SxNn) ji[gviE

  • an&. 46 - an&s*(ct ji(t, an&s*(ct jnji(t an[ aºynbLivgi[<ni> S]x(Nk an[ ai(Y<k (hti[n) uºn(t

  • an&. 50 - ºyiyt>#in&> kiri[bir)Y) (vBijn

  • ni[>F :- 23 j&liE,2003mi> svi[<µc adilt[ pi[tini a[k a](thi(sk c*kidimi> d[Smi> bFiFi(m<k sm&diyi[ miT[ smin nig(rk s>(htin) j$(ryitbtiv). adilt[ a[ bibt pr (dlg)r) dSi<v) k[ 56 vP< pC) pN b>FirNni[ an&. 44 lig& piD) Skiyi[ nY). j[nian&sirsrkirni[ a[ p\yRn hi[vi[ ji[Ea[ k[ t[ d[Smi> smin nig(rk s>(htilig& kr[. adilt[ ApOTky&< C[ k[ b>FirNni[ an&. 25 j[ Fm<nipilntYi t[ni r)t(rvijni> amlni[ a(Fkir p\din kr[ C[ jyir[ an&. 44 Fm<n[ simi(jk s>b>Fi[ tYiÄy(ktgtkiydiai[Y) algkr[ C[.


  • {3} rijn)(tk tYi pyi<vrN s>b>F) n)(t (nd[<Sk tRvi[ :- rh)n[ Birtni tmim li[ki[ vµc[ s>vi(dti AYipvin) tYi B\itZBivn) Bivni k[Lvvin) an[ A#i)ai[ni gi]rvn[ hi(nkirk Äyvhiri[ni[ Ryig krvin)

  • an&. 40- g\im p>ciyti[n) AYipni

  • an&. 43 a[ - uwi[gi[ni vh)vTmi> kimdiri[n) sim[lg)r)

  • an&. 47 - pi[PNn&> Atr an[ JvnFi[rN U>c& livvin) an[ jih[r airi[³y s&Firvin) rijyn) frj

  • an&. 48 - K[t) an[ Qi[r uC[r a>g[ ÄyvAYi

  • an&. 48 a[ - pyi<vrNn&> rxN an[ s&FirNi an[ j>gl t[mj vºy Jvi[n) slimt)n&> rxN

  • an&. 49 - Amirki[ an[ riOT^)y agRy Frivti> AYLi[ an[ pdiYi[<n&> rxN

  • {4} ai>trriOT^)y Si>(t tYi s&rxi siY[ s>b>(Ft n)(t (nd[<Sk tRvi[ :-

    - riOT^(pti mhiRmi gi>F) (vVSi>(t tYi minv kÃyiNn[ pi[tini Jvnn&> lÈy minti hti. t[mni (vciri[Y) p\Bi(vt Yen[ b>FirN s(m(ta[ ai vg<mi> a[vi tRvi[n[ sim[l kyi< C[ j[ni[ uØ[S (vVSi>(t an[ minv kÃyiN C[.


  • p\ rh)n[ Birtni tmim li[ki[ vµc[ s>vi(dti AYipvin) tYi B\itZBivn) Bivni k[Lvvin) an[ A#i)ai[ni gi]rvn[ hi(nkirk Äyvhiri[ni[ Ryig krvin)â - m*LB*t a(Fkiri[ an[ rijy n)(tni (nd[<SktRvi[ vµc[ni a>tr pr p\kiSpiDi[. rijy n)(tni (nd[<SktRvi[niaml)krNmiT[ k[ºW an[ rijysrkiroirikrvimi> aiv[l upiyi[mi>Y) k[Tlik pr cci< kri[. {07/1/6b)/250/30}

  • p\â - rijyn[ b>Fnkti< adiltmi> (vcirniayi[³y (nd[<Si[ s>b>F) b>FirN)y ji[gviEai[n) sm)xi kri[. {02/1/8a[/150/15}

  • p\â - rijy n)(tni (nd[<SktRvi[n) b>FirN)y (AY(t S&> C[ ? 1975-77 n) kTi[kT) pC) adilt[ t[n&> aY<FTn k[v) r)t[ ky&< C[ ? {01/1/7a[/250/30}

  • p\â - rijy n)(tni (nd[<SktRvi[n&> mhRv S&> C[ ? rijyn) n)(tnikyi (nd[<SktRvi[n[ m*L a(Fkiri[n) srKimN)mi> p\m&Kti p\i¼t C[ t[ dSi<vi[. {99/2/4a[/150/20}

  • p\â - m*LB*t a(Fkiri[n) siY[ n)(t (nd[<SktRvi[n) vt<min (AY(t j[ p(r(AY(tmi> uBr) C[ t[n&> s>(x¼t vN<n kri[. {98/2/1a[/250/40}

  • p\â - Big-4 mi> smi(vOT (nd[<Si[ upri>t b>FirNniaºyBigi[mi> k[Tlik b)ji (nd[<S j[ rijyninim[ C[ t[ S&> C[ ? {92/2/4a[/150/20}


M lb t frji
m*LB*t rh)n[ Birtni tmim li[ki[ vµc[ s>vi(dti AYipvin) tYi B\itZBivn) Bivni k[Lvvin) an[ A#i)ai[ni gi]rvn[ hi(nkirk Äyvhiri[ni[ Ryig krvin)frji[

  • p\â - m&²y m*LB*t frji[ ai[LKi[ {03/1/8b)/150/15}

  • p\â - Birtni b>FirNni ki[E pN cir m*LB*t frji[ lKi[

    {97/2/8D)/25/3}

  • p\â - m*LB*t frji[ an[ a[ni[ h[t& S&> C[ ? {93/2/4a[/150/20}


Big 5 s g the union
Big-5 s>G rh)n[ Birtni tmim li[ki[ vµc[ s>vi(dti AYipvin) tYi B\itZBivn) Bivni k[Lvvin) an[ A#i)ai[ni gi]rvn[ hi(nkirk Äyvhiri[ni[ Ryig krvin){The Union}

  • Birt)y b>FirN[ s>sd)y SisnpÜ(t (b\Tnmi>Y) apniv) C[.

  • (b\Tnmi> Sisnn) p\m&KriN) hi[y C[ jyir[ Birtmi> riOT^p(t hi[y C[

  • (b\Tnmi> riN)n&> pd v>Sin&gt C[ jyir[ Birtmi> riOT^p(t c*>TN)m>DL oiri c*>Tvimi> aiv[ C[. t[Y) Birtn[ p\jis_iikgNrijykh[vimi> aiv[ C[.

  • an&. 52 - BirtniriOT^p(t

  • riOT^ni b>FirN)y vDi C[

  • kiri[bir)nivDimi#inimni hi[y C[. viAt(vksti m>#i)m>DLnihiYmi> hi[y C[.

  • hi[Ñi[ s>BiL[ t[ tir)KY) pi>c vP< s&F)n) m&dt hi[y C[

  • riOT^p(t pd miT[n) liykiti[ :-

  • Birt)y nig(rk,

  • 35 vP< p*riYy[li,

  • li[ksBinis¿ytr)k[ c*>TN) lDvin) liykit

  • t[mjai[(fsai[f p\i[(fTni[ hi[Ñi[ Frivti n hi[vi ji[Ea[

  • an&. 53 - s>Gn) kiri[bir) sti

  • s>Gn) kiri[bir) stiriOT^p(tmiAYi(pt YS[ an[ t[ stini[ Avy> aYvi t[mniaF)nAYi[ a(Fkir)ai[ oiri b>FirNan&siramlkrvimi> aivS[.


  • s> rh)n[ Birtni tmim li[ki[ vµc[ s>vi(dti AYipvin) tYi B\itZBivn) Bivni k[Lvvin) an[ A#i)ai[ni gi]rvn[ hi(nkirk Äyvhiri[ni[ Ryig krvin)GnilÆkr) dLi[n) svi[<µc stiriOT^p(tmi> AYi(pt YS[ an[ t[n&> (nymnkiydioiri YS[.

  • an&. 54 - riOT^p(tn) c*>TN)

  • s>sd {li[ksBi an[ rijysBi}, rijyn) (vFinsBini c*>Tiy[lis¿yi[nibn[limtdirm>DL oiri

  • riOT^p(tni hi[Ñin) m&dt p*r) Yiy t[ ph[linviriOT^p(tn) c*>TN) krvimi> aiv[ C[.

  • t[mnian&gim)n) (nmN*>k n YiyRyi> s&F) t[ai[ pi[tini hi[Ñi pr cil* rh) Sk[[ C[.

  • ki[E rijy (vFinsBin) am&k j³yiai[ Kil) hi[y aYviki[E rijy (vFinsBin&> (vsj<n Yy[l&> hi[y, ti[ pNriOT^p(tn) c*>TN) aTkiv) Skit) nY).

  • an&. 55 - riOT^p(tn) c*>TN)n) r)t

  • {1} sm$pti an[ smt&Ãytini[ (sÜi>t

  • (vFins¿ynimtn&> m*Ãy = {rijyn) k&lvAt) / rijyni (vFinsBini c*>Tiy[lis¿yi[n) k&l s>²yi}/1000

  • s>sds¿ynimtn&> m*Ãy = k&lrijy (vFinsBini c*>Tiy[lis¿yi[nimt m*Ãyi[ni[ srviLi[ / s>sdni b>n[ gZhi[ni c*>Tiy[lis¿yi[n) s>²yi

  • {2} a[kl s>k\mN)y (sÜi>t


  • an&. 56 - riOT^p(tn) stiai[ rh)n[ Birtni tmim li[ki[ vµc[ s>vi(dti AYipvin) tYi B\itZBivn) Bivni k[Lvvin) an[ A#i)ai[ni gi]rvn[ hi(nkirk Äyvhiri[ni[ Ryig krvin)

  • kiri[bir) stiai[

  • an&. 77{1} p\miN[ tmim kiri[bir) kiyi[< riOT^^p(tni nimY) krvimi> aiv[ C[.

  • (nmN*>k krvin) sti :-

  • vDip\Fin an[ aºy k[ºW)y p\Fini[ {an&. 74}, a[Tn)< jnrl {76}, ki[À¼T^i[lr an[ ai[(DTr jnrl {an&. 148}, svi[<µc adiltni ºyiyiF)Si[ {an&. 124}, rijyn) vD) adiltni ºyiyiF)Si[ {an&. 217}, rijyni rijypili[ {an&. 155}, ai>trrijy s(m(t {an&. 263}, s>G jih[r s[vi aiyi[g an[ rijyi[ni sm*h miT[ s>y&kt aiyi[g{an&. 316}, niNi>p>c {an&> 280}, c*>TN) k(mSnr {an&.324{2}}, an&s*(ct ji(tai[ an[ an&s*(ct jnji(tai[ miT[ riOT^)y p>c{an&.338{a[}}, BiPi p>c {an&.434{1}}

  • lÆkr) stiai[

  • an&. 53{2} h[qLlÆkr) dLi[ni[ svi[<µc a>k&SriOT^p(tmi> AYi(pt C[.

  • lÆkr) dLi[n) rcni, t[mn) ni[kr)n) Srti[ vg[r[ a>g[ kiydi[ GDvin) sti s>sdnihiYmi> C[. t[ an&sir s>sd[ aim)< a[kTpsirkr[l C[.

  • Birtni riOT^p(t s>sdn) m>j*r) (vni aYvi Avy> y&Ü jih[r kr) Sk[ nh)>.

  • v]Fi(nk stiai[ :-

  • Birtni riOT^p(t s>sdni[ Big C[. s>sdn[ jvibdir nY) pr>t& t[ai[ j[ p\Finm>DLn) rcni kr[, t[ s>sdn[ jvibdir C[.

  • {1} s>sdn) b[qk bi[livvin) k[ m&ltv) riKvin) an[ s>sdn&> (vsj<n krvin) {an&.85{2}}

  • {2} s>sdn&> ud`GiTn p\vcn krvin) {an&. 87{1}}

  • {3} s>sdn[ s>bi[Fn krvin) an[ s>d[Si mi[klvin) r)t {an&. 86}


  • {4} vi(P<k niNi>k)y (nv[dn rj* krvin) {an&. 112{1}} rh)n[ Birtni tmim li[ki[ vµc[ s>vi(dti AYipvin) tYi B\itZBivn) Bivni k[Lvvin) an[ A#i)ai[ni gi]rvn[ hi(nkirk Äyvhiri[ni[ Ryig krvin)

  • {5} ki[À¼T^i[lr an[ ai[(DTr jnrlni[ ah[vil rj* krvin) {an&.151{1}}

  • {6} k[ºW)y jih[r s[vi p>cni[ vi(P<k ah[vil rj* krivvin) {an&.323}

  • {7} an&s*(ct ji(t an[ an&s*(ct jnji(t miT[ni riOT^)y p>cni[ ah[vil rj* krivvin) {an&.338}

  • {8} simi(jk an[ S]x(Nk r)t[ pCit vg<ni li[ki[n) (AY(t tpisvi miT[ (nmiy[l p>cni[ ah[vil rj* krvin) {an&.340}

  • KrDiai[ rj* krvi miT[ BlimN j$r) :

  • {1} rijyi[n) srhdi[ aYvi nimmi> f[rfir krvi miT[ni[ KrDi[ {an&. 3{a[}}

  • {2} niNi>k)y KrDi[ {an&. 117}

  • {3} s>(ct(n(Fmi>Y) Kc< krvini[ hi[y t[v) ki[E bibt a>g[ni[ KrDi[ {an&. 117{3}}

  • {4} rijyn&> (ht j[mi> rh[l hi[y t[vi[ krv[ri[ lidvini[ k[ t[mi> f[rkir krvin[ lgti[ KrDi[ {an&. 274}

  • {5|} v[pir vi(Njyni Avit>#y pr (ny>#iN m*kti[ KrDi[ {an&. 304}


  • º rh)n[ Birtni tmim li[ki[ vµc[ s>vi(dti AYipvin) tYi B\itZBivn) Bivni k[Lvvin) an[ A#i)ai[ni gi]rvn[ hi(nkirk Äyvhiri[ni[ Ryig krvin)yi(ykstiai[

  • kTi[kT)n) stiai[

  • niNi>k)y stiai[

  • riOT^p(tni (vS[Pi(Fkiri[

  • an&. 61 - riOT^p(tnimhi(Byi[g miT[n) p\(k|yi

  • an&. 63 - BirtniupriOT^p(t an&. 66 - upriOT^p(tn) c*>TN)

  • an&. 67 - upriOT^p(tni hi[Øin) m&dt

  • an&. 70 - aºyaik(Amktiai[mi> riOT^p(tni> kiyi[<n) bjvN)

  • an&. 71 - riOT^p(t aYviupriOT^p(tn) c>*TN)n[ lgt) aYvi t[n) siY[ s>b>(Ft bibti[

  • an&. 74 - riOT^p(tn[ mddkrvi an[ slihaipvimiT[ m>#i)m>DL

  • an&. 75 - m>#i)ai[n[ lgt) aºyji[gviEai[

  • an&. 76 - Birtni a[Tn)< jnrl

  • an&. 79 - s>sdn&> b>FirN

  • an&. 80 - rijysBin) rcni


  • an&. 81 - rh)n[ Birtni tmim li[ki[ vµc[ s>vi(dti AYipvin) tYi B\itZBivn) Bivni k[Lvvin) an[ A#i)ai[ni gi]rvn[ hi(nkirk Äyvhiri[ni[ Ryig krvin)li[ksBin) rcni

  • an&. 82 - dr[k vst) gNtr) pC) p&n<ÄyvAYi

  • an&. 83 - s>sdnigZhi[n) m&dt

  • an&. 84 - s>sdnis¿ypdmiT[ liykitan&. 85 - s>sdnis#ii[, s#ismi(¼t an[ (vsj<n

  • an&. 86 - riOT^p(tni[ gZhi[n[ s>bi[Fvini[ an[ s>d[Siai[ mi[klvini[ a(Fkir

  • an&. 87 - riOT^p(tn&> Kis s>bi[Fn

  • an&. 88 - gZhi[ a>g[ m>#i)ai[ an[ a[Tn)< jnrlni a(Fkiri[

  • an&. 89 - rijysBini a¹yx an[ upi¹yx

  • an&. 90 - upi¹yxni pdni[ avkiS, riJnim&> aYvi $Ksd

  • an&. 93 - li[ksBini a¹yx an[ upi¹yx

  • an&. 94 - a¹yx an[ upi¹yxni pdni[ avkiS, riJnim&> aYvi $Ksd

  • an&. 95 - upi¹yx aYviaºyki[E Äy(ktn) hi[Ñin) frji[ aYvi a¹yx tr)k[ kiy< krvin) sti

  • an&. 96 - a¹yx an[ upi¹yxn[ hi[ÑiprY) d*r krviniqrivn) (vcirNivKt[ t[ai[ a¹yx AYin l[S[ nh)>.


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