Systems engineering process requirements gathering
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Systems Engineering Process: Requirements Gathering. Topic Agenda . Recall: Basics of Requirements Gathering It’s All About the Customer Process Mapping Process Analysis Requirements Documentation. Recall: Basics of Requirements Gathering . Requirements Gathering.

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Systems engineering process requirements gathering

Systems Engineering Process: Requirements Gathering


Topic agenda

Topic Agenda

  • Recall: Basics of Requirements Gathering

  • It’s All About the Customer

  • Process Mapping

  • Process Analysis

  • Requirements Documentation

  • Recall: Basics of Requirements Gathering


Requirements gathering

Requirements Gathering

Preliminary Investigation

Requirements Gathering

System & Data Analysis

Scale & Scope

Design & Development

Global Deployment &

Change Management

Operations & Support


Key to requirements gathering

Key to Requirements Gathering?

  • Good Communication!

  • Two volunteers please..


Topic agenda1

Topic Agenda

  • Recall: Basics of Requirements Gathering

  • It’s All About Your Customer

  • Process Mapping

  • Process Analysis

  • Requirements Documentation

  • It’s All About Your Customer


Create a customer partnership extending the preliminary investigation findings

  • Identify Next Level Info Needed

  • Cross-Functional Steering Team

  • Develop Current State Process Docs

  • (include strengths & weaknesses)

  • Develop Current Functionality Docs

  • Observe Current State & Adjust Docs

  • Validate w/End Users & Adjust Docs

  • Develop Next Gen Process Docs

  • Develop Next Gen Functional Docs

  • Validate w/End Users & Adjust Docs

Create a Customer Partnership!(Extending the Preliminary Investigation Findings)

Step 1: Obtain authorization to proceed

Step 2: Identify the necessary information

  • Step 3: Initiate a fact-finding search

    • Obtain & analyze org charts to determine WHO to interview

    • Conduct interviews with appropriate departments/customers

    • Review current system documentation

    • Observe current operations/process

    • If necessary, conduct brief survey

Step 4: Analyze collected information

Step 5: Present findings & recommendations to management


Process example direct store delivery dsd

Process Example: Direct Store Delivery (DSD)

  • What: Vendor Manages Inventory & Delivery

  • Where: Retail Stores

  • When:

    • Products Difficult to Warehouse (eggs, bread, snacks)

    • Number of Stores in Region (I.e., NE ice cream in winter)

    • Vendor-Driven (most beverages)

  • Why: Cost Savings

  • Examples: Frito-Lay, Coke, Miller, Mrs. Baird’s


Typical grocery complex supply chain

Vendors/

Markets

Corporate/Merchandising Office

Division 1

Stores

Raw Material

Suppliers

Private Label

Plants

Corporate/Merchandising Office

Division 2 Stores

DC

Acquired Business N

Acquired Business 2

Acquired Business 1

Corporate/Merchandising Office

Division M

Stores

DC with

Merchandising

Office

DC

Typical Grocery Complex Supply Chain


Typical grocery supply chain elements

Typical Grocery Supply Chain Elements


Dsd grocery supply chain elements

DSD Grocery Supply Chain Elements


Dsd system steering team

DSD System Steering Team

  • Corporate Buyer w/Dept Management & DSD Background*

  • Information Technology Lead

  • Supply Chain Management Analyst*

  • Warehouse Asst Manager*

  • Technical Documentation Specialist

  • Potentially, a Vendor Representative*

  • * Subject matter experts


Current typical process diagram

Current Typical Process Diagram

  • Deliveries (large vendor) twice a week according to schedule

  • Transmit from store to corporate by delivery close of business

  • Invoice & payment within 3-4 weeks


Current process strengths weaknesses

Time for Store

Inventory Costs

Risk of Non-Sale

Shelf Hogging

Backroom Dumping

Control of Product Mix

BOL Data Entry Error

Invoice Matching Error

Current Process Strengths & Weaknesses

Advantages

Disadvantages


Topic agenda2

Topic Agenda

  • Recall: Basics of Requirements Gathering

  • It’s All About Your Customer

  • Process Mapping

  • Process Analysis

  • Requirements Documentation

  • Process Mapping


Process mapping

Process Mapping

Choose a Process & Define its Objective

Identify the Process Owner(s)

Establish the Process Boundaries

Identify Process Customers & Suppliers

Flowchart the Process


Recall flow chart guidelines

Recall Flow Chart Guidelines

  • Boxes indicate process steps

  • Arrows indicate the process flow

  • Columns can be used to indicate function or human role (I.e., buyer) involved

  • Multiple entry and exit points are allowed

  • Shows cross-functional flows

  • Indicate conditional paths w/comments on arrows


Try this

Try This..

  • Map the process of making a peanut butter sandwich

  • Identify the sources of defects (failure to meet customer expectations)


The myth

The Myth

  • What I do is unique

  • It can’t be described

  • It can’t be measured


The facts

The Facts

  • All work can be viewed as a process

  • All work can be mapped

  • All activities are measurable


Typical supplier owner customer interests

Typical Supplier/Owner/Customer Interests

  • Clear understanding of steps & importance

  • Clear understanding of time involved

  • Efficiency

  • Reliable results


Example domino s pizza

Example: Domino’s Pizza

  • World’s #1 Pizza Delivery

  • World’s #2 Pizza Chain (behind Pizza Hut)

  • $1.8 Billion Sales; 12,500 Employees

  • Founded in 1960 w/$500 investment

  • 7100 Stores in 65 Countries

  • 85% of Stores are Franchised

  • 18 Distribution Centers Throughout US

  • 7+ Million Pizzas/Week; 340M Lbs. Dough/Year


Who influences what to do

Customer

Domino’s

Place Order

Take Order

Receive Order

Deliver Order

Pay Driver

Collect Payment

WHO influences what to DO

Domino’s Order Taking: Customer View


Order taking domino s view

Customer

Manager

Cook

Driver

Place Order

Take Order

Schedule

Order

Make Pizza

Driver Swim Lane

Customer Swim Lane

Schedule

Delivery

Package

Order

Receive

Order

Deliver

Order

Feedback

Pay Driver

Collect

Payment

Return to

Store

Give

Feedback

Request

Feedback

Order Taking: Domino’s View


Topic agenda3

Topic Agenda

  • Recall: Basics of Requirements Gathering

  • It’s All About Your Customer

  • Process Mapping

  • Process Analysis

  • Requirements Documentation

  • Process Analysis


Process performance

Process Performance

  • Number of Defects

    (Failure to Meet Customer Expectations)

  • Cycle Time

  • Effort/Energy


Process mapping analysis

Improvements

Current

Future

  • What is the current cycle time & defect* rate?

  • With current resources, what’s the best?

  • What is very best that could be achieved?

* Defect is any failure to meet customer expectations

Process Mapping & Analysis

  • Identify Next Level Info Needed

  • Identify Steering Team

  • Develop Current State Process Docs

  • (include strengths & weaknesses)

  • Develop Current Functionality Docs

  • Observe Current State & Adjust Docs

  • Validate w/End Users & Adjust Docs

  • Develop Next Gen Process Docs

  • Develop Next Gen Functional Docs

  • Validate w/End Users & Adjust Docs


Identifying next generation processes

Identifying Next Generation Processes

Repetitive

Non-Repetitive

Defects

Cycle-Time

Type

Performance

Process

Description

Complexity

Suppliers

Customers

Size

Variability

Steps


Topic agenda4

Topic Agenda

  • Recall: Basics of Requirements Gathering

  • It’s All About Your Customer

  • Process Mapping

  • Process Analysis

  • Requirements Documentation

  • Requirements Documentation


Recall process mapping analysis

Recall: Process Mapping & Analysis

  • Identify Next Level Info Needed

  • Identify Steering Team

  • Develop Current State Process Docs

  • (include strengths & weaknesses)

  • Develop Current Functionality Docs

  • Observe Current State & Adjust Docs

  • Validate w/End Users & Adjust Docs

  • Develop Next Gen Process Docs

  • Develop Next Gen Functional Docs

  • Validate w/End Users & Adjust Docs


Variety of common documents

Variety of Common Documents

  • High-Level Requirements Document

  • Functionality Hit List

  • Use Cases


High level system process functionality doc

High-Level System (Process/Functionality) Doc

  • Typically in MS Word or Adobe PDF

  • Typically 20-40 pages in length (max 50 pages)

  • Provide general flavor of system objectives, expected use & functionality information

  • Release priority if appropriate

  • Clear indication of people processing vs. automated


Contents of high level requirements doc

Contents of High-Level Requirements Doc

  • Document Edit Log

  • Table of Contents

  • Executive Summary (1-2 paragraphs)

  • Business Attributes Summary

    • User Roles Involved

    • Supply Chain &/or Product Attributes Summary

    • 1-4 Most Critical Processes/Steps

  • Business Process Step General Information

    • User Actions, Frequency, Functionality Required

    • Small Examples to Articulate Desired Support

  • Appendices with Really Detailed Stuff (I.e, Report List)


Functionality hit list

Functionality Hit List

  • Line items of functionality needs

  • Content:

    • Functional Item ID

    • Process & Sub-Process

    • Functionality Group

    • Functionality Description

    • Functionality Priority

    • Targeted Release


Use cases

Use Cases

  • Represents steps in a specific process

  • External entity (actor or role) requests system to perform process or function

    • Examples:

      • Buyer orders a book on Amazon.com

      • Driver pulls in & requests a car wash

      • Student shows up for a class

  • Use cases can be linked or referenced to other use cases


Use case documents

Use Case Documents

  • Summary List

  • High Level Process Use Cases

  • Detailed Process Use Cases

  • Special Function/Exception Handling Use Cases


Use case summary list

Use Case Summary List

  • Process or Processes

  • Use Case Category

    • High Level Process

    • Detailed Process

    • Special Function/Exception Handling Process

    • Integration (Data)

  • Role

  • Targeted Release

  • Solution Components


Example of detailed process use cases

Example of Detailed Process Use Cases


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