Corporation
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Advantages Limited liability Unlimited life Separation of ownership and management Transfer of ownership is easy Easier to raise capital. Disadvantages Separation of ownership and management

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Corporation

Advantages

Limited liability

Unlimited life

Separation of ownership and management

Transfer of ownership is easy

Easier to raise capital

Disadvantages

Separation of ownership and management

Double taxation (income is taxed at the corporate rate and then dividends are taxed at the personal rate)

Corporation

LO2

A business created as a distinct legal entity owned by one or more individuals or entities.


Financial management decisions
Financial Management Decisions

LO1

  • Capital budgeting

    • What long-term investments or projects should the business take on?

  • Capital structure

    • How should we pay for our assets?

    • Should we use debt or equity?

  • Working capital management

    • How do we manage the day-to-day finances of the firm?



Financial manager
Financial Manager

LO1

  • Financial managers try to answer some or all of these questions

  • The top financial manager within a firm is usually the Chief Financial Officer (CFO)

    • Treasurer – oversees cash management, capital expenditures and financial planning

    • Controller – oversees taxes, cost accounting, financial accounting and data processing



Long term financial planning and corporate growth

Chapter 4

Long-term Financial Planning and Corporate Growth


Chapter 4 outline
Chapter 4 Outline

  • What is financial planning

  • Financial planning models

  • The percentage of sales approach

  • External financing and growth

  • Caveats in financial planning


What is financial planning
What is Financial Planning?

  • Financial planning formulates the way financial goals are to be achieved

  • Financial plan – a statement of what is to be done in the future

  • What is the goal of financial management?


Short vs long term financial planning
Short vs. Long-term Financial Planning

  • Short-term planning – analysis of decisions that affect current assets and current liabilities:

  • Cash and liquidity management

  • Credit and inventory management

  • Long-term planning – focuses on the “big picture”:

  • Capital budgeting

  • Dividend policy

  • Financial structure


Dimensions of financial planning
Dimensions of Financial Planning

  • Financial horizon – the long-range time period the financial planning process focuses on, usually the next 2-5 years

  • Aggregation – process by which smaller investment proposals of each of a firm’s operational units are added up and treated as one big unit

  • Alternative set of assumptions about important variables (scenario analysis)


Aims of financial planning 1
Aims of Financial Planning (1)

  • Examining interactions – make explicit the linkages between investment proposals for the different operating activities of the firm and financing choices available to the firm

  • Exploring options – develop, analyze and compare many different scenarios in a consistent way

  • Avoiding surprises – identify what may happen to the firm if different events take place


Aims of financial planning 2
Aims of Financial Planning (2)

  • Ensuring feasibility and internal consistency – are the company’s goals compatible?

  • Communication with investors and lenders


Financial planning model elements 1
Financial Planning Model: Elements (1)

  • Sales forecast – given as a growth rate in sales

  • Pro forma statements – a financial plan has a forecasted balance sheet, an income statement, and a statement of cash flows

  • Asset requirements – firms’ total capital budget consists of changes in total fixed assets and net working capital


Financial planning model elements 2
Financial Planning Model: Elements (2)

  • Financial requirements – how to raise the capital; dividend policy and debt policy

  • Cash surplus or shortfall (“plug”) – the designated source of external financing needed to deal with any shortfall in financing and to bring the balance sheet into balance

  • Economic assumptions – level of interest rates, the firm’s tax rate and sales forecast


Simple financial planning model
Simple Financial Planning Model

  • All variables are tied to sales and this relationship is optimal

  • The growth in assets requires the management to decide how to finance the growth (debt vs. equity)

  • Dividend policy

  • Financing policy



2 if sales increase by 20 income statement
(2) If sales increase by 20% - income statement


3 if sales increase by 20 balance sheet
(3)If sales increase by 20% - balance sheet


3 if sales increase by 20 balance sheet1
(3)If sales increase by 20% - balance sheet


The percentage of sales approach
The Percentage of Sales Approach

  • A financial planning method in which accounts are projected depending on a firm’s predicted sales level

  • Not all of the items vary directly with sales



(2)

Dividend payout ratio = Cash dividends/Net income = $ 44/$132 *100= 331/3%

Retention ratio (plowback ratio) = Retained earnings/Net income = $88/$132*100 = 662/3%

or retention ratio = 1- dividend payout ratio =

1-0.333 = 0.667


(3)

Projected addition to retained earnings = 165*0.667

Projected dividends paid to shareholders =165*0.333

Net income =165




External financing
External Financing

External financing needed (EFN) = the amount of financing required to balance both sides of the balance sheet

For Rosengarten Corporation:

Assets-(Liability + Equity) = $3,750 – $3,185 = $565

In order to have a 25% increase in sales the corporation has to raise $565 in new financing

Possible sources of financing :

- short-term borrowing

- long-term borrowing

- new equity


Capital intensity ratio
Capital Intensity Ratio

  • A firm’s total assets divided by its sales

  • The amount of assets needed to generate $1 sales


Efn and capacity usage
EFN and Capacity Usage

  • Suppose Rosengarten is operating at 80% capacity:

    1. What would be sales at full capacity?

    2. What is the capital intensity ratio at full capacity?

    3. What is EFN?


Answers: (homework)

Conclusion: excess capacity reduces the need for external financing and capital intensity ratio



Forecasted sales growth 25
Forecasted sales growth 25%

  • Full capacity=1000/.8=1250 (no need for new FA)



Forecasted sales growth 50
Forecasted sales growth 50%

  • Full capacity=1000/.8=1250 (1500-1250=$250 sales should be produced on new FA)


Efn and growth
EFN and Growth

  • Increase in total assets is financed internally and externally

  • Increase in total assets = assets (A) × sales growth (g)

  • Internal financing = Addition to retained earnings = Projected net income × retention ratio (R) = Profit margin (p) × projected sales[S×(1+g)] × retention ratio

    or

    or

EFN = A×g – p×S×R×(1+g)

Internal growth rate = ROA×R/(1-ROA×R)


Financial policy and growth
Financial Policy and Growth

  • A firm may not wish to sell any new equity

  • If a firm borrows to its debt capacity sustainable growth rate can be achieved

Debt capacity = the ability to borrow to increase firm value

g* = ROE×R/(1-ROE×R)


Internal vs sustainable growth rates
Internal vs. Sustainable Growth Rates

  • Internal growth rate – the maximum growth rate a firm can maintain with only internal financing

  • Sustainable growth rate – the maximum growth rate a firm can achieve with no external equity financing


From intro finance course using du pont analysis
From intro finance course…Using Du Pont Analysis


Determinants of growth
Determinants of Growth

g* = [p (S/A) (1+D/E)×R]/[1-p(S/A)(1+D/E)×R]

  • Profit margin

  • Dividend policy

  • Financial policy

  • Total asset turnover


Caveats of financial planning models
Caveats of Financial Planning Models

  • Rely on accounting relationships

  • Need to be modified over time

  • Objectivity of financial plans


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