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The Scientific Method. Essential Question: How can the scientific method be applied to daily experiences?. Objectives: Understand the components of the scientific method Apply the scientific method. What We’re Learning…. The Scientific Method. Starts with a question

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The Scientific Method

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## The Scientific Method

Essential Question:

How can the scientific method be applied to daily experiences?

Objectives:

Understand the components of the scientific method

Apply the scientific method.

### The Scientific Method

• Starts with a question

• Only tests one question at a time

Observation

Research

Hypothesis

Experiment

Collect Data

Analyze Data

Draw Conclusions

Share Information

### Steps to the Scientific Method

Scientific Method

### Starts with….

• Observation

• Using the five senses (taste, touch, smell, sight, sound)

### Inference

• A statement about a general situation based on prior knowledge

### Inductive reasoning

• Uses specific instances to create a general rule.

• EX. You’ve lost your house key.

• You were wearing your gray jacket when you remember having it.

• Previously, you’ve lost small items through a hole in the pocket into the lining.

• Your house key must be in the lining of the gray jacket.

### Deductive reasoning

• Applying a general rule to a specific situation.

• EX. The dog is panting.

• She must be hot and thirsty.

• Her water bowl must be empty.

• When you check, you find that it is.

• If the dog is panting, then she must be hot and need water.

### Followed by…

• Research

• Books, journals, magazines, newspapers, electronic sources

• Should be CURRENT

### Create a…..

• Hypothesis

• Educated Guess/Possible Explanation

• If…Then…. statement

### Design an…

• Experiment

• Process of testing a hypothesis

• Must have:

• Independent Variable/I.V. (manipulated variable)---thing we purposely change

• Dependent Variable/D.V. (responding variable)—measured response of the I.V.

• Trials/Sample Size-- # of times experiment is run

• Control—Experiment run without the I.V. used for comparison

• Constants– Conditions kept the same for all trials

### Collect…

• Data

• Collected during experiments

• Expressed in charts and graphs

• Two types

• Quantitative—numerical data (Ex. 1,2,3)

• Qualitative—descriptive data (Ex. Fast/Slow)

### Graphs Need…

• Meaningful Title

• Legend

• D.V.—Y-Axis

• I.V.—X-Axis

Depe nden t

Var

iable

Legend:

Independent Variable—X-Axis

### Analyze Data…

• Compare and contrast your findings

### Draw…

• Conclusions

• Support or reject hypothesis

• What you discovered

• Any mistakes or improvements?

• Sources of errors—Errors in the experiment that may have changed the results

• Major Discovery?

• Theory--Many scientists have tested and gotten the same results

• Law - a phenomenon of nature that has been proven to invariably occur whenever certain conditions exist or are met. It is generally accepted to be true and universal.