The scientific method
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The Scientific Method. Essential Question: How can the scientific method be applied to daily experiences?. Objectives: Understand the components of the scientific method Apply the scientific method. What We’re Learning…. The Scientific Method. Starts with a question

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The Scientific Method

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The Scientific Method


Essential Question:

How can the scientific method be applied to daily experiences?

Objectives:

Understand the components of the scientific method

Apply the scientific method.

What We’re Learning…


The Scientific Method

  • Starts with a question

  • Only tests one question at a time


Observation

Research

Hypothesis

Experiment

Collect Data

Analyze Data

Draw Conclusions

Share Information

Steps to the Scientific Method


Scientific Method


Starts with….

  • Observation

    • Using the five senses (taste, touch, smell, sight, sound)


Inference

  • A statement about a general situation based on prior knowledge


Inductive reasoning

  • Uses specific instances to create a general rule.

  • EX. You’ve lost your house key.

    • You were wearing your gray jacket when you remember having it.

    • Previously, you’ve lost small items through a hole in the pocket into the lining.

    • Your house key must be in the lining of the gray jacket.


Deductive reasoning

  • Applying a general rule to a specific situation.

  • EX. The dog is panting.

    • She must be hot and thirsty.

    • Her water bowl must be empty.

    • When you check, you find that it is.

    • If the dog is panting, then she must be hot and need water.


Followed by…

  • Research

    • Books, journals, magazines, newspapers, electronic sources

    • Should be CURRENT


Create a…..

  • Hypothesis

    • Educated Guess/Possible Explanation

    • If…Then…. statement


Design an…

  • Experiment

    • Process of testing a hypothesis

    • Must have:

      • Independent Variable/I.V. (manipulated variable)---thing we purposely change

      • Dependent Variable/D.V. (responding variable)—measured response of the I.V.

      • Trials/Sample Size-- # of times experiment is run

      • Control—Experiment run without the I.V. used for comparison

      • Constants– Conditions kept the same for all trials


Collect…

  • Data

    • Collected during experiments

    • Expressed in charts and graphs

  • Two types

    • Quantitative—numerical data (Ex. 1,2,3)

    • Qualitative—descriptive data (Ex. Fast/Slow)


Graphs Need…

  • Meaningful Title

  • Legend

  • D.V.—Y-Axis

  • I.V.—X-Axis

Depe nden t

Var

iable

Legend:

Independent Variable—X-Axis


Analyze Data…

  • Compare and contrast your findings


Draw…

  • Conclusions

    • Support or reject hypothesis

    • What you discovered

  • Any mistakes or improvements?

    • Sources of errors—Errors in the experiment that may have changed the results


  • Major Discovery?

    • Theory--Many scientists have tested and gotten the same results

    • Law - a phenomenon of nature that has been proven to invariably occur whenever certain conditions exist or are met. It is generally accepted to be true and universal.


Experimental Design Diagram (EDD)


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