The scientific method
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The Scientific Method. Essential Question: How can the scientific method be applied to daily experiences?. Objectives: Understand the components of the scientific method Apply the scientific method. What We’re Learning…. The Scientific Method. Starts with a question

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The Scientific Method

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The scientific method

The Scientific Method


What we re learning

Essential Question:

How can the scientific method be applied to daily experiences?

Objectives:

Understand the components of the scientific method

Apply the scientific method.

What We’re Learning…


The scientific method1

The Scientific Method

  • Starts with a question

  • Only tests one question at a time


Steps to the scientific method

Observation

Research

Hypothesis

Experiment

Collect Data

Analyze Data

Draw Conclusions

Share Information

Steps to the Scientific Method


The scientific method

Scientific Method


Starts with

Starts with….

  • Observation

    • Using the five senses (taste, touch, smell, sight, sound)


Inference

Inference

  • A statement about a general situation based on prior knowledge


Inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning

  • Uses specific instances to create a general rule.

  • EX. You’ve lost your house key.

    • You were wearing your gray jacket when you remember having it.

    • Previously, you’ve lost small items through a hole in the pocket into the lining.

    • Your house key must be in the lining of the gray jacket.


Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning

  • Applying a general rule to a specific situation.

  • EX. The dog is panting.

    • She must be hot and thirsty.

    • Her water bowl must be empty.

    • When you check, you find that it is.

    • If the dog is panting, then she must be hot and need water.


Followed by

Followed by…

  • Research

    • Books, journals, magazines, newspapers, electronic sources

    • Should be CURRENT


Create a

Create a…..

  • Hypothesis

    • Educated Guess/Possible Explanation

    • If…Then…. statement


Design an

Design an…

  • Experiment

    • Process of testing a hypothesis

    • Must have:

      • Independent Variable/I.V. (manipulated variable)---thing we purposely change

      • Dependent Variable/D.V. (responding variable)—measured response of the I.V.

      • Trials/Sample Size-- # of times experiment is run

      • Control—Experiment run without the I.V. used for comparison

      • Constants– Conditions kept the same for all trials


Collect

Collect…

  • Data

    • Collected during experiments

    • Expressed in charts and graphs

  • Two types

    • Quantitative—numerical data (Ex. 1,2,3)

    • Qualitative—descriptive data (Ex. Fast/Slow)


Graphs need

Graphs Need…

  • Meaningful Title

  • Legend

  • D.V.—Y-Axis

  • I.V.—X-Axis

Depe nden t

Var

iable

Legend:

Independent Variable—X-Axis


Analyze data

Analyze Data…

  • Compare and contrast your findings


The scientific method

Draw…

  • Conclusions

    • Support or reject hypothesis

    • What you discovered

  • Any mistakes or improvements?

    • Sources of errors—Errors in the experiment that may have changed the results


The scientific method

  • Major Discovery?

    • Theory--Many scientists have tested and gotten the same results

    • Law - a phenomenon of nature that has been proven to invariably occur whenever certain conditions exist or are met. It is generally accepted to be true and universal.


Experimental design diagram edd

Experimental Design Diagram (EDD)


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