Elemental Distributions in the Universe and the Solid Earth

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Elemental Distributions in the Universe and the Solid Earth

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Elemental Distributions in the Universe and the Solid Earth

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Elemental Distributions in the Universe and the Solid Earth

GLY 4241 - Lecture 2

Fall, 2014

- Number of atoms per million atoms
- Weight percent
- Volume percent
- Relative to abundance of silicon

- For elements heavier than H, the Oddo-Harkins rule holds that elements with an even atomic number (such as carbon) are more common than elements with an odd atomic number (such as nitrogen)
- The effect was first reported by Giuseppe Oddo in 1914 and William Draper Harkins in 1917
- Elements with odd atomic numbers have one unpaired proton
- During nucleosynthesis, these elements are more likely to capture another proton, thus increasing their atomic number
- In elements with even atomic numbers, protons are paired, with each member of the pair offsetting the spin of the other, enhancing stability

- Li6 7.42 %Li7 92.58%
- B10 19.80 %B11 80.20%
- K39 93.20 %K40 0.012%K41 6.73%
- Results from the Oddo-Harkins Rule

Cosmic Abundances Normalized to Si = 106

Approximate percentage by weight

- After Mason and Moore, 1982, p.44