Collision avoidance procedures
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Collision Avoidance Procedures. Soaring Safety Foundation Flight Instructor Refresher Clinic Rich Carlson. Sharing Airspace. Regulations. FAR 91.113 (b) Regardless of … IFR or VFR … all pilots will observe “See and Avoid” procedures Advisory Circular 90-48C

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Collision Avoidance Procedures

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Collision avoidance procedures

Collision Avoidance Procedures

Soaring Safety Foundation

Flight Instructor Refresher Clinic

Rich Carlson

Sharing airspace

Sharing Airspace



  • FAR 91.113 (b)

    • Regardless of … IFR or VFR … all pilots will observe “See and Avoid” procedures

  • Advisory Circular 90-48C

    • Pilots role in collision avoidance

  • AIM Section 4-4-13 (d)

    • Describes effective scanning techniques

See and avoid

See and Avoid

  • Basic Concept

    • Look outside and avoid running into other aircraft!

See and avoid1

See and Avoid

  • Advantages

    • Uses Mark I human eyeball

    • Low regulatory overhead

  • Limitations

    • Pilot must recognize hazard and take action

Mark i eyeball

Mark I Eyeball

Supplement Page 8



  • Physiological issues

    • Blind spot

    • Empty Field Myopia

  • Physical obstructions

    • Seat location

    • Canopy rails

    • Instruments

Visual scanning

Visual Scanning

  • Peripheral vision detects motion

  • Foveal vision identifies objects

  • Proper scanning procedures

    • Use multiple sectors (10 deg)

    • Stop in each sector for a second or 2

    • Focus on distant object

Known hazardous areas

Known Hazardous Areas

  • General areas

    • Near VOR’s

    • In and around Class D, C, and B airspace

    • Near victor airways

    • Within 5 miles and 3000 ft of an airport

Known hazardous areas1

Known Hazardous Areas

  • Glider Specific

    • Thermals

    • Start/Finish Gate

    • Turnpoints

    • Ridge line

    • Others

Aircraft markings

Aircraft Markings

  • Anti-collision markings

    • A study by the OSTIV TSP found that high visibility color (Safety Orange) reduced the visibility of a glider

    • Highly reflective ‘mirror’ tape did a much better job

Visual perception

Visual Perception

  • The blocks on the lower left mark the danger area for the speeds quoted, when aircraft are on a collision course. This danger area is based on the recognition and reaction time shown in the table on the lower right.

  • From AC 90-48C

Reaction time in seconds

Reaction time in seconds

Visual perception1

Visual Perception

  • Move back 12 feet from this illustration. From that position the silhouettes represent a T-33 aircraft as it would appear to you from the distances indicated in the table on the left. The time required to cover these distances is given in seconds for a combined speed of 360 and 600 mph.

  • From AC 90-48C

Is a collision imminent

Is a collision imminent?

Position reporting

Position Reporting

  • Where am I

  • Where are you

  • Aids to position reporting

    • GPS distance/bearing

    • Altitude

    • Known ground reference

Electronic aids

Electronic Aids

  • Radio’s

  • Transponders

    • Operation limitations

    • Glider only codes

Portable collision avoidance boxes

Portable Collision Avoidance Boxes



Situational awareness

Situational Awareness

  • What’s happening now

  • What’s going to happen next

  • What’s going to happen soon

  • What’s he going to do

12 action items from jim short s airspace in the new century

12 Action Items from Jim Short’s “Airspace in the New Century”

  • Prominent posting of airline arrival/departure routes and expected altitudes

  • Post NOTAMs for meets and contests

  • Define local areas that are relatively safe

  • Voluntarily avoid high risk areas

  • Increase our personal vigilance at critical altitudes

  • Consider a Mode C transponder

    Supplement Page 7



  • Remember – most mid-airs and near mid-airs occur during the day, in VFR conditions, close to an airport

  • See and Avoid procedures need to be taught

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