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V isit from the Icelandic Architect Association Indoor environment Lars Gunnarsen Danish Building Research Institute. Pleasure Comfort Produktivity Sickliness Avoidance of dangers Reproduction possible. Indoor climate research. Indoor climate exposures. Temperature Draft Dampness

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Visit from the Icelandic Architect Association

Indoor environment

Lars Gunnarsen

Danish Building Research Institute


Pleasure

Comfort

Produktivity

Sickliness

Avoidance of dangers

Reproduction possible

Indoor climate research


Indoor climate exposures

Temperature

Draft

Dampness

Air quality

Lighting

View

Noise

Particles

Allergenes

Micro fungi

Non ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation


Cumulative chart of time spent at home for different age groups

16-24

25-44

45-66

67-79

80+

100

90

80

70

60

Persons (%)

50

40

30

20

10

0

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

Average number of hours at home per weekday

Danes spend in average 16.3 hours at home on a weekday


100 groups

80

60

Persons (%)

40

20

0

0

50

100

150

200

2

Area

per

occupant

(m

/person)

Cumulative chart of dwelling area

Average dwelling area is 48,9m2 per person and 123,9m2 per household


  • Introduction groups

  • Cost of the indoor climate

    2500 euro/m2. Half of all investments

  • Building envelope

    Volume/surface: 0.5 m. Many microclimates

  • Ventilation

    0.5-5 h-1. 0.3 – 3 l/s m2 floor

  • Adverse effects of the indoor climate contra

    its protective effects

  • Intake fractions (single person)

    An apple 80%

    A cigarette (the smoker) 30%

    Air pollution from candle 0.01%

    Air pollution from car in street 0.00000001%

    Air pollution from power plant 10 -14


Definitions groups

  • The definition of Health:

  • Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity

  • Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19-22 June, 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States

Indoor climate is here defined as:

All building related exposures that may impact the health of building occupants


Adult human in sedentary activity groups

(1,2 met)

Indoor air

O2: 20,85 %

CO2: 0,035%

H2O: 1,3%

(Volume)

Exhalation air:

O2: 15,3 %

CO2: 3,6%

H2O: 6,2%

(volume)

Consumption:

Indoor air: 375 l/h

(10,8 kg/døgn)

O2: 20,6 l/h

Produktion:

CO2: 17 l/h

H2O: 0,07 kg/h

Sensibel varme: 100 W

Lars Gunnarsen


Annoyance, symptoms groups

and diseases


Annoyances, symptoms and diseases groups

Poor indoor climate may result in annoyance and symptoms.

Infectious diseases may to some degree be prevented by effective ventilation and large indoor space per occupant.

Some indoor exposures impact the suffering of people with astma and allergy but the knowledge about importance of the indoor exposures for acquiring the diseases is rudimentary.

At least four exposures indoor may lead to cancer. They are radon, environmental tobacco smoke, other combustion products and formaldehyde.

Cardiovascular diseases may be developed as a result of exposure to environmental smoke and high levels of particle pollution. Noise and probably poor lighting may give stress that also may lead to cardiovascular diseases.

Productivity is low in a poor indoor climate.


At least one groups

Skin irritation from hot water

At home

Infra- or low frequency sound

Little or much annoyed

Static electricity

Bad drinking water

Noise from industry

Dwelling too dark

Vibrations

Noise from installations

Odor or stale air

Draft

Temperature too high or low

Noise from traffic

Cold at feet

Noise from neighbors

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

Annoyed (%)

Annoyance within last 14 days


Noise from outside groups

At work

Cold at feet

Glare

Several times per week or daily

Low temperature

Unpleasant odor

High temperature

Bad illumination

Static electricity

Little space

Draft

Noise from other rooms

Dust/dirt

Changing temperatures

Tobacco smoke

Stale air

Dry air

Noise in room

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

Annoyed (%)


Symptoms last 14 days – At home groups

Brauer og Mikkelsen, 2002


Symptoms last 14 days – At work groups

Brauer og Mikkelsen, 2002



  • Radon groups

  • Human bioeffluents

  • Chemical substances

  • Odors

  • Asbestos

  • Tobacco smoke

  • Particles from indoor sources (High temperature surfaces, candles,

  • cooking)

  • Particles from outside

  • Allergens of indoor origin (House dust mites, furred animals, moulds)

  • Allergens from outside (pollen)

  • Viruses and bacteria


Impact of outdoor sources for groups

particle exposure indoor

4.

3.

2.

1.


Hair groups

Pollen

House dust mite allergene

Cat allergene

Bacteria

Fungi spores

Road abbration

Wood stoves

Bacteria spores

Fry fume

Oxidation of chemicals

Heated dust

Diesel exhaust

Tobacco smoke

Gasoline exhausts

Vira

Gas stove

0,0001

0,001

0,01

0,1

1

10

100

1000

Ångstrøm

millimeter

Particle size (µm)


Adult human in sedentary activity groups

(1,2 met)

Indoor air

O2: 20,85 %

CO2: 0,035%

H2O: 1,3%

(Volume)

exhalation air:

O2: 15,3 %

CO2: 3,6%

H2O: 6,2%

(volume)

Consumption:

Indoor air: 375 l/h

(10,8 kg/døgn)

O2: 20,6 l/h

Produktion:

CO2: 17 l/h

H2O: 0,07 kg/h

Sensibel varme: 100 W

Lars Gunnarsen


50 groups

45

40

35

30

Dissatisfied (%)

25

20

15

10

5

0

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Ventilation rate (l/s pers)


70 groups

60

50

40

Dissatified (%)

30

20

10

0

0

50

100

150

3

Ventilation (m

/cigarette)





Risk of eksposure to mould groups

0 1 2 3

None Weak Some Large

Mould odor None Weak Some Poverfull

Visible mould 0 m2 < 0,25 m2 0,25-3 m2 > 3 m

Hidden mould < 0,5 m2 1-3 m2 3-10 m2 < 10 m2

Mould growth in

adjoining rooms - - - -

Growth in ventilation

systems - - - -

Meget støv - - - -

Samlet - - - -


25 groups

100%RH

20

80%RH

15

Absolute moisture (g/kg)

60%RH

10

40%RH

5

20%RH

0

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

Temperature (oC)

Humid air



General recommendations groups

  • Poor indoor climate may increase the risk of attracting infectious diseases, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and maybe allergy

  • Avoid moisturizing construction products for a prolonged time

  • Smoking should not take place indoors

  • Outdoor paints and other construction products containing fungicides should not be used indoors

  • Persons suffering from allergies in particular suffer from a poor indoor climate.

  • When selecting construction products it is important to select products with low emissions both of odorous compounds but also of other adversechemical compounds

  • Many ventilation systems should be better operated and maintained.


Authorities are recommended to immediately prioritize the following:

  • Targeted information campaigns about behavior to obtain good indoor air quality

  • Improved guidelines for monitoring of the indoor climate quality especially in homes

  • To identify homes with especially high radon concentrations and to reduce the exposure

  • To investigate the need for reduction of the exposure to formaldehyde, benzene and carbon dioxide in the indoor climate.


  • We need new knowledge about how the indoor climate affects us especially in the following fields

  • We need a major investigation of the importance for public heath of the indoor climate in dwellings

  • We need to develop new knowledge about the possibilities for reducing the annoyance caused by ventilation systems

  • We need to examine the health effects of exposure to particles indoors from ventilation and the possibilities for reduction of this exposure


Complex exposures related to building technology that may indicate increased risk of ill health

• Dampness

• Ventilation systems

• Building envelope


Hot issues indicate increased risk of ill health

Dwellings

Open plan offices

Ventilation

Particles

Asthma and allergy

Dampness


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