Diagnostics of the local interstellar medium and its interaction with the heliosphere from within
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E. Möbius with H. Kucharek, M. Bzowski, L. Saul, P. Wurz, S. Fuselier, V. Izmodenov, D. McComas, H.-R. Müller, D. B. Alexashov. DIAGNOSTICS OF THE LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM AND ITS INTERACTION WITH THE HELIOSPHERE FROM WITHIN. Thanks to: IBEX Team and NASA SMEX Office ISSI He and H Team.

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Diagnostics of the local interstellar medium and its interaction with the heliosphere from within

E. Möbius

with H. Kucharek, M. Bzowski, L. Saul, P. Wurz, S. Fuselier, V. Izmodenov, D. McComas, H.-R. Müller, D. B. Alexashov

DIAGNOSTICS OF THE LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM AND ITS INTERACTION WITH THE HELIOSPHERE FROM WITHIN

Thanks to: IBEX Team and NASA SMEX OfficeISSI He and H Team

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Neutral lic flow diagnostics with ibex

Neutral LIC Flow Diagnosticswith IBEX

  • IntroductionInformation Imprinted on Interstellar Gas Flow, previous Observations & current Knowledge

  • New Observation Method- IBEX Mission Configuration and Simulations- IBEX Instrumentation and Sensitivity- IBEX Orbit Strategy- IBEX In-Flight Performance

  • Summary & Conclusions

Overview

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Interstellar gas penetrates the barrier

Interstellar Gas Penetrates the Barrier

Rosetta Nebula

1967

≈700 AU

Fahr 1967

Showed that in-situ observationof the LIC is possible at 1 AU!

“Strömgren Sphere”

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Information in the interstellar gas flow

Information in the Interstellar Gas Flow

3 In-Situ Methods

- UV Backscattering - integral, - hard to calibrate + global info

- Pickup Ions

- lost velocity info + composition

- Neutral Imaging + full distribution - hard to do few species

mvB2/2 ≈ GmMs/Rat ≈ 1.3 AU

Velocity Vector fromKinematics of Local Flow

and Density Pattern

Jmax/Jo: ISM Temperature

VISM

Opens

With IBEX

Jo: ISM Density

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Pristine lic state from he with 3 methods efforts of an issi team

Pristine LIC State from He with 3 Methods(Efforts of an ISSI Team)

He Parameters from Neutral Gas, Pickup & UV Scattering

  • VHe= 26.3 km/s; THe = 6300 K; nHe = 0.015 cm-3

Neutral Image(V, T, NHe)

Let’s Turn to other Species!

Neutral Gas Observations provide most accurate and detailed information

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Plasma interaction with the lic

Plasma Interaction with the LIC

Plasma Density Contours

Blue & Green Solar Wind

Bow Shock?

He

He

Termination Shock

ISM ≈ 26 km/s

H & O

Charge Exchange

O, H

slow & hot

H+, O+

Heliopause

ISM

Orange - Pristine ISM

Red - Decelerated ISM

3D MHD Model T. Linde, Thesis

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Lic he state h density at ts 2 issi teams

LIC He State & H Density at TS (2 ISSI Teams)

Combine He Parameters, TS Distance & H Density at the TS

To infer H and H+ Densities in the LIC

  • SW Slowdown Richardson et al.: 0.09±0.02 cm-3Includes Uncertainties in Model & Parameters

  • UV Scattering Pryor et al.: 0.09±0.024 cm-3Modulation Damping; Incl. Observ. & Model Uncertainties

  • Pickup Ions Bzowski et al.: 0.087±0.022 cm-3Observation, Model, Ioniz. & Rad. Pressure Uncertainties

Key Value: nH from SW Slowdown, UV Scattering & Pickup

  • Voyager Tails Gloeckler et al.: 0.055±0.021cm-3IncludesNHe & relative Uncertainties

  • Weighted Mean:0.083±0.023 cm-3

There are still large Uncertainties

Let us Expand the He Neutral Observations to H or O!

And there is more to gain with Direct Flow Observations!!

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Ly alpha observations have revealed deflected flow of h

Ly Alpha Observations Have RevealedDeflected Flow of H

Asymmetric ISM Magnetic FieldDeflects the Decelerated FlowIzmodenov et al., 2005

H

Latitude

He

Longitude

Direct Neutral Observations & 2nd Species Highly Desirable

Lallement et al. 2005

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Pattern of the interstellar gas flow

Pattern of the Interstellar Gas Flow

It Has Been Done for He, Revealing the Pristine Flow!

Asymmetry

Effect

IBEX

Oxygen will be Displaced, Revealing Deflection & Braking

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Modeling of h o flow with ism magnetic field

Modeling of H & O Flow with ISM Magnetic Field

BISM

O Flow Deflected by ≈ 1orelative to He

Izmodenov

From Möbius et al., 2009

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Pattern of the interstellar gas flow1

Pattern of the Interstellar Gas Flow

IBEX

Oxygen Displaced,

Revealing

Deflection & Braking

Simulated Observationin Longitude

after

Izmodenov et al., 1996

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Pattern of the interstellar gas flow2

Pattern of the Interstellar Gas Flow

Oxygen Displaced,

Revealing

Deflection & Braking

Fall

Spring

Simulated Flow Angle Difference

Trajectory Computation

Bzowski et al.

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Neutral gas observation how does it work ii oxygen

Neutral Gas Observation, How Does it Work?II. Oxygen + ..

  • Collimator CameraDirection DeterminationNeed large area: Collimator

  • Use Surface Conversion into Ions- Need Mass Spectrometer for Species Identification!- Negative Ions: For O, H, (C) Not for N! Is it for He??

  • Technique doesn’t Provide E - Use the Sun as Gravitational Spectrometer- Determine Arrival Direction Also for Deflection by ISM Magnetic Field

Oo

O-

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Imaging of several neutral atom species what does it take to do this

Imaging of Several Neutral Atom Species What Does it Take to Do this?

IBEX-Lo Collimator

Diamond-Like Carbon

Analyzer

Start 1 +

Start 2 +

Stop

Hard DiskCoating

e-Start 2

ion

ion

ion Stop

Time-of-Flight

foil1 foil2 MCP

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


He represents the pristine ism flow can it be observed simultaneously

He Represents the Pristine ISM Flow Can it be Observed Simultaneously?

Yes, it Can! With Sputter Products

Test with Neutral He at UoBern

Spring

Fall

Meta-Stable He

IBEX-Lo

Wurz et al., 2008

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Ibex ism o and he observation conditions

IBEX ISM O and He Observation Conditions

  • IBEX is a Sun-Pointed SpinnerIBEX-lo FoV at 90o to the Sun

  • Observation Periods:Fall and Spring

  • Fall: Large Angular Separation of Primary & Secondary O, but low Count RateBecause: Earth recedes from Flow

  • Spring: Small Angular Separation of Primary & Secondary O, but high Count RateBecause: RAM Direction

  • Observe O at 540 eV

  • Observe He at 135 eV (x1500 in Flux; High Sputtering Efficiency)

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Ibex keeps orientation for one full orbit how does that affect the o observation

IBEX Keeps Orientation for One Full Orbit How Does that Affect the O Observation?

  • Overlapping Sweeps in Spring

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Simulated o flow observation for the spring flow passage

Simulated O-Flow ObservationFor the Spring Flow Passage

O Flow Spring

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Ibex lo in flight performance

IBEX-Lo In-Flight Performance

IBEX-Lo TOF

Works

Great!

H & O

Easily Identified

e Filtered out!

Excellent Tool

to Tackle

Background

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Ibex lo in flight performance1

IBEX-Lo In-Flight Performance

Arbitrary Orbit 9 Sample

No Selection

or BackgroundSubtraction!

Normalized toISM Flow Viewing

Both ISM O & He

will be well Visible!

First Spring Period

Starts Now!

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Conclusions outlook

Conclusions & Outlook

  • Neutral Atom Imaging is becoming a powerful new window for Local Astrophysics

  • ISM He Holds Unbiased LIC Account Neutral Gas Observations provide the most detailed and accurate LIC Parameters, in accordance with simultaneous Pickup Ion & UV Observations

  • ISM H & O - affected by the Heliospheric Interface - hold clues to the interaction with the LIC

  • IBEX-lo will determine the O Flow distribution in direct comparison with He and relative to star positions, thus providing slowdown, heating, and deflection of the Secondary O component

  • Flow Signal 2 orders of magnitude above average sample

  • First Observation Campaign starts now!

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Thank you

Thank You!

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Neutral atoms a new window for local astrophysics

Neutral AtomsA New Window for Local Astrophysics

  • Neutral Atoms:Observed up to their Mean Free Pathlength:A few 100 AU in the Neighborhood of the Sun-> Ideal for charting the Heliosphere and its Boundaries-> No Interference from farther away, But Objects outside are also beyond the Neutral Atom Horizon

  • IBEX takes it up to its Horizon

  • Neutral Atom Imagingknits another connection between Space Physics & Astrophysics

Point Source

Diffuse Source

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Ism neutral gas in different ism cloud environments

ISM Neutral Gas In Different ISM Cloud Environments

  • Hot Cloud like the Local Bubble:No Neutral Gas in the Bubble,Thus No In-Situ Observations

  • Cold and Dense ISM Clouds:- N ≥ 100 cm-3- He Remains most Important Species at 1 AU- Slowdown of SW inside 1 AU in Focusing Cone “He Comet”- Pickup Ions and Energetic He+ very important at 1 AU

Möbius et al., 2006

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


If we could see our heliosphere from outside

If We Could See Our Heliospherefrom Outside …

ISM Gas Flow

BZ Cam

Spring AGU Mtg 2008 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Pattern of the interstellar gas flow he provides unbiased lic parameters

Pattern of the Interstellar Gas FlowHe Provides Unbiased LIC Parameters

Courtesy M. Witte

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Three step approach into the future

Three Step ApproachInto the Future

  • 1) Make Use of “S3C Great Observatory” with Coordinated ObservationsACE, SOHO, Wind, Ulysses, Voyagers

  • 2) Be Innovative at Our Front DoorstepModerately Improved Observation Techniques at 1 AU or up to ≈3 AU IBEX Improve Resolution and Collection Power

  • 3) Develop Seriously a Probe to the Frontier * Interstellar Probe *It definitely Needs Improved Technology!!

Spring AGU Mtg 2008 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Combined he cone pui observations ampte ace nozomi

Combined He Cone PUI ObservationsAMPTE, ACE & NOZOMI

Sliding 9-Day Averages

Daily Averages

Solar Minimum

30 – 40

Days

Maximum

Gloeckler et al., 2004


Strong variations in pickup ion distributions

Strong Variations in Pickup Ion Distributions

  • Pickup Ion Distributions are Highly Variable

  • Pickup Ions React to:- IMF Orientation (early Rollover)- IMF Strength (Compression and Rarefaction)- SW Density (Compression and Rarefaction)- Ionization rates &probably several unknown causes

  • For Deduction of LIC Parameters Mitigation Sought with:- Long Integration Times

  • Better: Attempt to Understand Causes- Also Provides Handle on Ion Transport and Acceleration

  • STEREO (also ACE) Provide Simultaneous Observations


Stereo ace now allow simultaneous interstellar he cone observations

STEREO & ACE Now Allow Simultaneous Interstellar He Cone Observations

This provides tools to separate spatial & temporal variations

STEREO A

ACE

≈40oin 2007

STEREO B

Ongoing Analysis not discussed here


Pristine lic state from he with 3 methods efforts of an issi team1

Pristine LIC State from He with 3 Methods(Efforts of an ISSI Team)

Sensitive to Ionization

Cone

Sensitive to V, T, Ionization

J. Raymond

G. Gloeckler

Neutral Image(V, T, NHe)

J. Vallerga

SWICSPickup (NHe)

Simulation:Courtesy J. Raymond

UV Ionization, Solar Illuminationfrom SOHO SEM, EIT and SUMER

IndependentCheck on V

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Neutral imaging most accurate detailed

Neutral Imaging Most Accurate & Detailed

Spring AGU Mtg 2008 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Why did we start with interstellar helium and not hydrogen

Why Did we Start with Interstellar Helium?(and not Hydrogen)

  • Has the Highest Ionization Potential i.e. Reaches 1 AU

  • Second Most Abundant Species i.e. Is an Important Species in the LISM

  • Not Affected by the Heliospheric Interface i.e. Provides an Unbiased Account of the LISM

  • Could be Observed with 3 Methods First: Neutrals, Pickup, Scattering of Solar UV

Spring AGU Mtg 2008 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Ibex ism o observation conditions

IBEX ISM O Observation Conditions

  • IBEX is a Sun-Pointed SpinnerIBEX-lo FoV at 90o to the Sun

  • Observation Periods:Fall and Spring

  • Fall: Large Angular Separation of Primary & Secondary O, but low Count RateBecause: Earth recedes from Flow

  • Spring: Small Angular Separation of Primary & Secondary O, but high Count RateBecause: RAM Direction

CSPAR Conf Voyagers in the Heliosheath Jan 2009 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Ibex lo o conversion efficiency for ism o observations

IBEX-lo O Conversion EfficiencyFor ISM O Observations

  • O must be observed in Spring and FallSeparates Heliospheric from Gravitational Deflection

  • In Fall: O Flux down x4 (lower relative speed) & Efficiency down x20

  • But Lo-Res Section can be usedIncreases collection x12

IBEX-Lo Energy Range

Fall

Spring

x 20

Wurz et al., 2006

Spring AGU Mtg 2008 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


Why bother

Why Bother?

Spring AGU Mtg 2008 E. Möbius UNH/SSC


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