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TEC 401 Session One. Human Factors In Technology. Joseph Lewis Aguirre. FUD. "Despite the existence of more and better information than ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

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TEC 401 Session One

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TEC 401

Session One

Human Factors In Technology

Joseph Lewis Aguirre


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FUD


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"Despite the existence of more and better information than ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

-- Peter Tobia, author, "Decision Making in the Digital Age: Challenges and Responses,"

Information Age Paradox


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Major E-Business Applications

Electronic

Business

Applications

Telecommunications

Networks

Enterprise

Communication

and

Collaboration

Electronic

Commerce

Internal

Business

Systems


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Artificial Intelligence

MAJOR AI APPLICATIONS

Cognitive Science (Human Information Processing)

Expert Systems Learning Systems Fuzzy Logic Neural Networks Intelligent Agents

Robotics Applications

Visual Perception Tactility Dexterity Locomotion Navigation

Natural Interface Applications

Natural Languages Speech Recognition Multi sensory Interfaces Virtual Reality


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Objectives

  • Technology and Business

    • Define the core functions of management.

    • Demonstrate how technology supports business management.

    • Recognize management challenges posed by emerging technology.

    • Identify how to meet technological challenges.

  • Impact of Technology on Business

    • Discuss the customer and the virtual value chain.

    • Examine the effects of technology on partnering.

    • Describe technology as a driver for organizational change.

  • Organizational and Social Impact of Technology

    • Examine the “new social contract.”

    • Identify ethical information policies within the organization.

    • Describe the application of technology to HR functions.


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Objectives (Continued)

  • The Customer, Global Business, and Technology

    • Examine globalization of technology.

    • Discuss business management for the multinational customer.

    • Describe personal challenges in knowledge management.

  • Managing Change for Emerging Technology

    • Discuss characteristics of technology-driven organizational change with regard to the implementation of technology.

    • Examine management of resistance to technological change.

    • Plan management of personal and organizational change.


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Is eCommerce Dead?

“Not so,”…. in Europe and the U.S., about 75 percent of IT managers and CIOs are familiar with the concept, and about one-third expect to participate in an e-marketplace this year either as a buyer or seller.

-- John Gantz, senior vice president at IDC


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Convergence

Technology

Organizational Performance

Human Factors


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Management Core Functions

Planning

Organizing

Directing/Leading

Controlling


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Management Roles

Mintzberg’s 10 Management Roles:

Interpersonal Figurehead Leader Liaison

Informational Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson

Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance Handler Resource Allocator Negotiator


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Decision Making Framework

Information Characteristics

Decision Structure

Pre specified Scheduled Detailed Frequent Historical Internal Narrow Focus

Business Professionals

Operational Management Efficient, do thing right

Structured

Tactical Management Business Unit Managers -Effective, right thing

Ad Hoc Unscheduled Summarized Infrequent Forward looking External Wide Scope

Semi Structured

Strategic Management Executives, Directors -Transformation

Un Structured

RELATIVE TIME SPAN


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Decision Structure

Structure

Non- collaborative

Collaborative

Weighted

Committee

Individual

Consensus

Majority

Weighted

Consensus

Majority


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Decision Making Process

Implementation

Decision Maker

Problem Definition

Stimulus


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Decision Making Process

Intelligent Phase

Objectives Problem statement Data Collection

Design Phase

Modeling Criteria Alternatives

Choice

Solutions to the Model Sensitivity Analysis Plan for implementation

Implementation


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Decision Making: Intelligence

Problem Identification

Problem Classification

Problem Ownership


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Decision Making: Design

Modeling

Criteria

Alternatives


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Decision Making: Choice

Search appropriate action- Blind

- Heuristic


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Decision Making: Evaluation

Multiple Goals

Sensitivity Analysis

What-If

Goal Seeking


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Decision Making

16

16

Decision: Commitment to action

4

1

11

5

12

13

3

8

14

6

2

9

17

15

10

7


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Decision Making Knowledge Based

4

4

1

1

11

11

5

5

12

12

13

13

3

3

8

8

14

14

6

6

2

2

9

9

17

17

15

15

10

10

16

16

7

7

F(h)

Knowledge0

Knowledge1


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Decision Making Context

Management Level

Organizational Design

Concurrency

Maturity


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Knowledge Base

16

16

4

1

11

5

12

13

3

8

14

6

2

9

17

15

10

7


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Problem Solving

Intelligence

Problem

Space

Problem

Space

Design

Choice


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Decision Styles

Task Oriented

Analyzer

Ruler

Entertainer

Relater

People Oriented

Passive

Aggressive

IntentNeedCategory

Get it done rightControlRuler Get it done right AccuracyAnalyzer Get AlongApprovalRelater Get AppreciatedAttentionEntertainer


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Alternative Decision Making Models

  • Paterson’s 5-step

  • Pounds’ 8-step

  • Kepner-Trego 3-step

  • Hammond elements for smart choices

  • Cougar’s Creative Problem-Solving

  • Pokras’ 6-step

  • Bazerman 6-step anatomy of a decision

  • Beach’s naturalistic decision theories


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Critical Factors

  • Innovation

  • Human Factor

    • Large proportion of top level professionals

    • Innovative

    • Optimistic

  • Organizational Factor

  • Management Competence factor

  • Know How/Know Why


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Innovation

Ability to take existing objects and combine them in different ways for new purposes

Unicorns: Excel at abstracting concepts to arrive at generalized principles. Ability to think in terms of global concepts rather than narrow formats of deductive logic.

Eagles: Fluency, flexibility and power of observation. Think futuristically. Consummate team players

Otters: Innovate through extension of principle….trivia buffs. From diverse interests, Otters can find association and connection between several previously unassociated ideas.


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Information Management

Innovator

Expert

Professional

Awareness

Knowledge

Insight

What to Think

How to Think


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Organization

Types of Information Systems

WGSS

AI

DSS

MIS

Transaction

Flow

What

EIS

CRM

Decentralized

Shared

Personal IS

TPS

Office IS


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High-Tech Characteristics

Large proportion of top-level professionals

Innovative

Optimistic


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Decision Making Drivers

Decision Making Drivers at Work:

Decision Making Drivers at Large :

Technology Complexity Competition Globalization Environmental/Regulatory Change


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DECISION SUPPORT DRIVERS

  • Speed, Timeliness

  • Accuracy

  • Cost Reduction

  • Increased Productivity

  • Technical Support

  • Quality Support

  • Competitive Tool

  • Overcome Cognitive Limits in Processing and Storage


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Organizational Culture

Individual Initiative – individual freedom, independence

Risk Tolerance – degree to which employee is encouraged

Directions – Clarify of objectives and performance

Integration

Management support – clear communication and support

Control – rules and regulations

Identity – Identity to corporate or group

Reward System

Conflict Tolerance

Communications pattern – hierarchical structure


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Organizational Culture

Values – risk taking, ethics,

Goals: Clarity, Commitment, Consistency

Structure– reward system consistent with values and goals, accountability, reporting (C3), decision making, walk the talk, feedback

Climate - Enthusiasm, Competition (supporting goals), Creativity. Collaboration. F;exibility, Involvement, Trust. Creative stress/

Environment – Other Teams/organizations, marketplace, Culture, Competition, Pressures


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Accounting and

Financial

Management

Supply

Chain

Management

Customer

Relationship

Management

Business

Decision

Support

Enterprise

Resource

Planning

Human

Resource

Management

Enterprise Applications


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Organizational Effectiveness

ENVIRONMENT

CLIMATE

Other Teams

Marketplace

Enthusiasm

STRUCTURE

Competition

Accountability

Reward System

GOALS

Reporting Relationships

Creativity

Values

Clarity

Commitment

Mission Philosophy

Collaboration

Stress

Feedback System

Decision Making

Behavior Norm

Flexibility

Trust

Competition

Culture

Involvement

Pressures


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Traditional MFG. Organizational

ENVIRONMENT

CLIMATE

Other Teams

Marketplace

Enthusiasm

STRUCTURE Mechanistic

Competition

Functional Structure

Reward System

GOALS

Hierarchical

Creativity

Values

Clarity

Commitment

Mission Philosophy

Collaboration

Stress

Feedback System

Centralized Decision Making

Control: Standardization

Flexibility

Trust

Competition

Culture

Involvement

Pressures


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Advanced MFG Technology Organizational

ENVIRONMENT

CLIMATE

Other Teams

Marketplace

Enthusiasm

STRUCTURE Organic

Competition

Product Team

Reward System

GOALS

Flat

Creativity

Values

Clarity

Commitment

Mission Philosophy

Collaboration

Stress

Feedback System

Decentralized Decision Making

Control: Mutual Adjustments

Flexibility

Trust

Competition

Culture

Involvement

Pressures


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Organizational Resources

Money

Materials

People

Knowledge

Money

Material

Human

Knowledge

Funds

Products

Services

Knowledge

INPUTS

RESOURCES

OUTPUTS

Feedback


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Implications of Advanced IT

Flattening Organizations

Horizontal Information Flow

-


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Challenges

Uncertainty of new technology

Workforce training

Special characteristics of high-tech Personnel

Hiring

Acquisition of resources

Change management


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