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TEC 401 Session One. Human Factors In Technology. Joseph Lewis Aguirre. FUD. "Despite the existence of more and better information than ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

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Slide1 l.jpg

TEC 401

Session One

Human Factors In Technology

Joseph Lewis Aguirre



Information age paradox l.jpg

"Despite the existence of more and better information than ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

-- Peter Tobia, author, "Decision Making in the Digital Age: Challenges and Responses,"

Information Age Paradox


Major e business applications l.jpg
Major E-Business Applications ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Electronic

Business

Applications

Telecommunications

Networks

Enterprise

Communication

and

Collaboration

Electronic

Commerce

Internal

Business

Systems


Major ai applications l.jpg

Artificial Intelligence ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

MAJOR AI APPLICATIONS

Cognitive Science (Human Information Processing)

Expert Systems Learning Systems Fuzzy Logic Neural Networks Intelligent Agents

Robotics Applications

Visual Perception Tactility Dexterity Locomotion Navigation

Natural Interface Applications

Natural Languages Speech Recognition Multi sensory Interfaces Virtual Reality


Objectives l.jpg
Objectives ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

  • Technology and Business

    • Define the core functions of management.

    • Demonstrate how technology supports business management.

    • Recognize management challenges posed by emerging technology.

    • Identify how to meet technological challenges.

  • Impact of Technology on Business

    • Discuss the customer and the virtual value chain.

    • Examine the effects of technology on partnering.

    • Describe technology as a driver for organizational change.

  • Organizational and Social Impact of Technology

    • Examine the “new social contract.”

    • Identify ethical information policies within the organization.

    • Describe the application of technology to HR functions.


Objectives continued l.jpg
Objectives (Continued) ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

  • The Customer, Global Business, and Technology

    • Examine globalization of technology.

    • Discuss business management for the multinational customer.

    • Describe personal challenges in knowledge management.

  • Managing Change for Emerging Technology

    • Discuss characteristics of technology-driven organizational change with regard to the implementation of technology.

    • Examine management of resistance to technological change.

    • Plan management of personal and organizational change.


Is ecommerce dead l.jpg
Is eCommerce Dead? ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

“Not so,”…. in Europe and the U.S., about 75 percent of IT managers and CIOs are familiar with the concept, and about one-third expect to participate in an e-marketplace this year either as a buyer or seller.

-- John Gantz, senior vice president at IDC


Convergence l.jpg
Convergence ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Technology

Organizational Performance

Human Factors


Management core functions l.jpg
Management Core Functions ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Planning

Organizing

Directing/Leading

Controlling


Management roles l.jpg
Management Roles ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Mintzberg’s 10 Management Roles:

Interpersonal Figurehead Leader Liaison

Informational Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson

Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance Handler Resource Allocator Negotiator


Decision making framework l.jpg
Decision Making Framework ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Information Characteristics

Decision Structure

Pre specified Scheduled Detailed Frequent Historical Internal Narrow Focus

Business Professionals

Operational Management Efficient, do thing right

Structured

Tactical Management Business Unit Managers -Effective, right thing

Ad Hoc Unscheduled Summarized Infrequent Forward looking External Wide Scope

Semi Structured

Strategic Management Executives, Directors -Transformation

Un Structured

RELATIVE TIME SPAN


Slide13 l.jpg

Decision Structure ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Structure

Non- collaborative

Collaborative

Weighted

Committee

Individual

Consensus

Majority

Weighted

Consensus

Majority


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Decision Making Process ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Implementation

Decision Maker

Problem Definition

Stimulus


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Decision Making Process ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Intelligent Phase

Objectives Problem statement Data Collection

Design Phase

Modeling Criteria Alternatives

Choice

Solutions to the Model Sensitivity Analysis Plan for implementation

Implementation


Decision making intelligence l.jpg
Decision Making: Intelligence ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Problem Identification

Problem Classification

Problem Ownership


Decision making design l.jpg
Decision Making: Design ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Modeling

Criteria

Alternatives


Decision making choice l.jpg
Decision Making: Choice ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Search appropriate action - Blind

- Heuristic


Decision making evaluation l.jpg
Decision Making: Evaluation ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Multiple Goals

Sensitivity Analysis

What-If

Goal Seeking


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Decision Making ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

16

16

Decision: Commitment to action

4

1

11

5

12

13

3

8

14

6

2

9

17

15

10

7


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Decision Making Knowledge Based ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

4

4

1

1

11

11

5

5

12

12

13

13

3

3

8

8

14

14

6

6

2

2

9

9

17

17

15

15

10

10

16

16

7

7

F(h)

Knowledge0

Knowledge1


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Decision Making Context ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Management Level

Organizational Design

Concurrency

Maturity


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Knowledge Base ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

16

16

4

1

11

5

12

13

3

8

14

6

2

9

17

15

10

7


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Problem Solving ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Intelligence

Problem

Space

Problem

Space

Design

Choice


Slide25 l.jpg

Decision Styles ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Task Oriented

Analyzer

Ruler

Entertainer

Relater

People Oriented

Passive

Aggressive

Intent Need Category

Get it done right Control Ruler Get it done right Accuracy Analyzer Get Along Approval Relater Get Appreciated Attention Entertainer


Alternative decision making models l.jpg
Alternative Decision Making Models ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

  • Paterson’s 5-step

  • Pounds’ 8-step

  • Kepner-Trego 3-step

  • Hammond elements for smart choices

  • Cougar’s Creative Problem-Solving

  • Pokras’ 6-step

  • Bazerman 6-step anatomy of a decision

  • Beach’s naturalistic decision theories


Critical factors l.jpg
Critical Factors ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

  • Innovation

  • Human Factor

    • Large proportion of top level professionals

    • Innovative

    • Optimistic

  • Organizational Factor

  • Management Competence factor

  • Know How/Know Why


Innovation l.jpg
Innovation ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Ability to take existing objects and combine them in different ways for new purposes

Unicorns: Excel at abstracting concepts to arrive at generalized principles. Ability to think in terms of global concepts rather than narrow formats of deductive logic.

Eagles: Fluency, flexibility and power of observation. Think futuristically. Consummate team players

Otters: Innovate through extension of principle….trivia buffs. From diverse interests, Otters can find association and connection between several previously unassociated ideas.


Slide29 l.jpg

Information Management ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Innovator

Expert

Professional

Awareness

Knowledge

Insight

What to Think

How to Think


Types of information systems l.jpg

Organization ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Types of Information Systems

WGSS

AI

DSS

MIS

Transaction

Flow

What

EIS

CRM

Decentralized

Shared

Personal IS

TPS

Office IS


High tech characteristics l.jpg
High-Tech Characteristics ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Large proportion of top-level professionals

Innovative

Optimistic


Decision making drivers l.jpg
Decision Making Drivers ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Decision Making Drivers at Work:

Decision Making Drivers at Large :

Technology Complexity Competition Globalization Environmental/Regulatory Change


Decision support drivers l.jpg
DECISION SUPPORT DRIVERS ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

  • Speed, Timeliness

  • Accuracy

  • Cost Reduction

  • Increased Productivity

  • Technical Support

  • Quality Support

  • Competitive Tool

  • Overcome Cognitive Limits in Processing and Storage


Slide34 l.jpg

Organizational Culture ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Individual Initiative – individual freedom, independence

Risk Tolerance – degree to which employee is encouraged

Directions – Clarify of objectives and performance

Integration

Management support – clear communication and support

Control – rules and regulations

Identity – Identity to corporate or group

Reward System

Conflict Tolerance

Communications pattern – hierarchical structure


Slide35 l.jpg

Organizational Culture ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Values – risk taking, ethics,

Goals: Clarity, Commitment, Consistency

Structure– reward system consistent with values and goals, accountability, reporting (C3), decision making, walk the talk, feedback

Climate - Enthusiasm, Competition (supporting goals), Creativity. Collaboration. F;exibility, Involvement, Trust. Creative stress/

Environment – Other Teams/organizations, marketplace, Culture, Competition, Pressures


Enterprise applications l.jpg

Accounting and ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Financial

Management

Supply

Chain

Management

Customer

Relationship

Management

Business

Decision

Support

Enterprise

Resource

Planning

Human

Resource

Management

Enterprise Applications


Slide37 l.jpg

Organizational Effectiveness ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

ENVIRONMENT

CLIMATE

Other Teams

Marketplace

Enthusiasm

STRUCTURE

Competition

Accountability

Reward System

GOALS

Reporting Relationships

Creativity

Values

Clarity

Commitment

Mission Philosophy

Collaboration

Stress

Feedback System

Decision Making

Behavior Norm

Flexibility

Trust

Competition

Culture

Involvement

Pressures


Slide38 l.jpg

Traditional MFG. Organizational ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

ENVIRONMENT

CLIMATE

Other Teams

Marketplace

Enthusiasm

STRUCTURE Mechanistic

Competition

Functional Structure

Reward System

GOALS

Hierarchical

Creativity

Values

Clarity

Commitment

Mission Philosophy

Collaboration

Stress

Feedback System

Centralized Decision Making

Control: Standardization

Flexibility

Trust

Competition

Culture

Involvement

Pressures


Slide39 l.jpg

Advanced MFG Technology Organizational ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

ENVIRONMENT

CLIMATE

Other Teams

Marketplace

Enthusiasm

STRUCTURE Organic

Competition

Product Team

Reward System

GOALS

Flat

Creativity

Values

Clarity

Commitment

Mission Philosophy

Collaboration

Stress

Feedback System

Decentralized Decision Making

Control: Mutual Adjustments

Flexibility

Trust

Competition

Culture

Involvement

Pressures


Slide40 l.jpg

Organizational Resources ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Money

Materials

People

Knowledge

Money

Material

Human

Knowledge

Funds

Products

Services

Knowledge

INPUTS

RESOURCES

OUTPUTS

Feedback


Implications of advanced it l.jpg
Implications of Advanced IT ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Flattening Organizations

Horizontal Information Flow

-


Challenges l.jpg
Challenges ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it,"

Uncertainty of new technology

Workforce training

Special characteristics of high-tech Personnel

Hiring

Acquisition of resources

Change management


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