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NEXT TIME. Read pp . 36-49. What is science?. Body of knowledge Way of learning. Why is it important to be scientifically literate?. Be skeptical, why is that important? Lots of people will make false claims, often to sell you products.

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Presentation Transcript

Next time


  • Read pp. 36-49

What is science

What is science?

  • Body of knowledge

  • Way of learning

Why is it important to be scientifically literate

Why is it important to be scientifically literate?

  • Be skeptical, why is that important? Lots of people will make false claims, often to sell you products

Next time

  • Understand how you can figure out the natural world

What is the scientific method

What is the scientific method?

  • A methodical way of understanding the world

  • A way of connecting cause and event unambiguously

  • Rigorous method of testing hypotheses

Scientific method

Scientific Method

  • Make observations (observe something in the natural world)

  • Formulate hypothesis (a statement explaining the phenomenon)

    • Establish mutually exclusive explanations

    • Generates testable predictions

      • “Whenever I come home my dog barks and runs in circles”

      • Hyp: My return home causes my dog to freak out

Scientific method1

Scientific Method

  • Devise testable prediction

    • A more precise version of the hypothesis

      • My return home causes a change in behavior in my dog

Scientific method2

Scientific Method

  • Conduct critical experiment – this part of the process is more difficult than it sounds

  • Draw conclusions & make predictions

    • Hypothesis supported or rejected?

    • Often this leads to more questions, more experiments

  • Share results

    • This introduces more minds, more ideas into the process

Scientific method3

Scientific Method

  • This process is generally NOT LINEAR, but each step can lead back to previous steps

    • During the experiment, you make more observations that change your hypothesis

    • While drawing conclusions you see how to make your experiment better

    • Or change your question altogether

Experiment lingo

Experiment lingo…

  • Controlling variables

    • Dependent and Independent

  • Treatment(experimental variable) – what you’re doing to your experimental group

  • Experimental group – the group of subjects (people, mice, plants) that you’re exposing to your treatment

  • Control group – treated identically to the experimental group, but not given the treatment (given placebo, nothing, etc.)

Good experiments

Good Experiments

  • Repeatability & sample size

    • Repeating an experiment and getting the same results shows that the findings are strong.

    • The more individuals you test, the more sure you can be of your results



Good experiments1

Good Experiments

  • Biases effect scientific experimentation at every level

    • Subconsciously we will push for our desired results.

    • Don’t trust yourself! Just design a good experiment you can trust!



  • The math we use to determine whether or not the results of our experiments show true differences or just randomness in the sample.

How to read graphs

How to read graphs...

  • Two axes

  • Points refer to a spot on both axes

Next time

Next time

Things to include on any graph

Things to include on any graph

  • Title

  • Two axes

    • Each needs a label, numbers, and units

  • Data

    • Can be points, line, etc.

Graph practice

Graph Practice

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