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Gel electrophoresis. DNA sequencing. Replication. DNA is the genetic material within the nucleus. DNA. The process of replication creates new copies of DNA. Transcription. RNA. The process of transcription creates an RNA using DNA information. Nucleus. Translation. Protein.

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Gel electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis

DNA sequencing


Central dogma

Replication

DNA is the genetic material

within the nucleus.

DNA

The process of replication

creates new copies of DNA.

Transcription

RNA

The process of transcription

creates an RNA using

DNA information.

Nucleus

Translation

Protein

The process of translation

creates a protein using

RNA information.

Cytoplasm

Central Dogma




Three Components of DNA Structure

base: thymine

(pyrimidine)

monophosphate

sugar: 2’-deoxyribose

5’

4’

1’

2’

3’

(5’ to 3’)

3’ linkage

base:adenine

(purine)

5’ linkage

no 2’-hydroxyl



Purines used in base pairs dna
Purines used in Base Pairs, DNA

Fused 5 and 6 member rings


Dna base pairing
DNA Base Pairing

A-T pairing

2 H-Bonds

G-C pairing

3 H-bonds







Transcription

3’

G

U

C

A

U

U

C

G

G

5’

RNA

Transcription

  • The new RNA molecule is formed by incorporating

  • nucleotides that are complementary to the template strand.

DNA

DNA coding strand

5’

G

T

C

A

T

T

C

G

G

3’

3’

C

A

G

T

A

A

G

C

C

5’

  • DNA template strand


# of strands

kind of sugar

bases used


RNA Polymerase is the Enzyme that Catalyzes Transcription of DNA Information to RNA

DNA (Blue)

Newly Synthesized RNA (Red)

Bridge Helix Moves DNA through Polymerase during RNA Synthesis (Green)

Active Site Metal (Pink)


Transcription1

3’ DNA Information to RNA

G

U

C

A

U

U

C

G

G

5’

RNA

Transcription

  • The new RNA molecule is formed by incorporating

  • nucleotides that are complementary to the template strand.

DNA

DNA coding strand

5’

G

T

C

A

T

T

C

G

G

3’

3’

C

A

G

T

A

A

G

C

C

5’

  • DNA template strand


Translation

DNA DNA Information to RNA

template

strand

DNA

T

T

C

A

G

T

C

A

G

Transcription

A

A

G

U

C

A

G

U

C

Messenger

RNA

mRNA

Codon

Codon

Codon

Translation

Polypeptide

(amino acid

sequence)

Protein

Lysine

Serine

Valine

Translation

  • The process of reading the RNA sequence of an mRNA and creating the amino acid sequence of a protein is called translation.


Genetic information written in codons is translated into amino acid sequences
Genetic information written in codons is translated into amino acid sequences

  • The “words” of the DNA “language” are triplets of bases called codons

    • 3 bases or nucleotides make one codon

    • Each codon specifies an amino acid

    • The codons in a gene specify the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide


The genetic code is the rosetta stone of life
The genetic code is the Rosetta stone of life amino acid sequences

  • Virtually all organisms share the same genetic code

  • All organisms use the same 20 aa

  • Each codon specifies a particular aa

Figure 10.8A


Figure 10.8A





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