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Ways organisms interact 4 2

http://www.dimijianimages.com/Aggression-defense-page4/vultures.jpg

http://www.mark-ju.net/wildlife/images/monkey03.jpg

WAYS ORGANISMS INTERACT4-2

http://www.epa.gov/region5/superfund/ecology/images/fishcartoon.gif

http://www.uark.edu/depts/agripub/Publications/Agnews/mosquito.jpg


Ways organisms interact

Ways organisms interact

COMPETITION

______________________

Between SAME and DIFFERENT kinds of organisms Compete with each other for available resources

__________________________

Between DIFFERENT kinds of organisms

Hunt and kill other organisms to supply their energy needs

__________________________

Between SAME kind of organisms

Live together and help each other

__________________________

Between DIFFERENT kinds of organisms

live in close association with another kind of organism

PREDATION

COOPERATION

SYMBIOSIS


What is a resource

WHAT IS A RESOURCE?

____________________________________________

Examples:

________________________

Anything needed by an organism for life

Nutrients, water, light, space


Competition

COMPETITION

Organisms in an ecosystem have to

compete with each other for available

resources.

FOOD

http://www.knology.net/~sgoswald/Eating.jpg

http://www.harcourtschool.com/glossary/science/images/gr3/community3.jpg


Competition1

COMPETITION

Organisms in an ecosystem have to

compete with each other for available resources:

shelter

http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Images/LBUN-5K538R/$File/fox_adultandcub.jpg

http://www.gdccc.org/Records/EOY2004/NSEOY.htm


Competition2

COMPETITION

Organisms in an ecosystem have to

compete with each other for available

resources

mates

http://www.wasatchcomputers.net/gallery/elk_fight.jpg

http://www.biocrawler.com/w/images/thumb/3/34/200px-Peacock_courting_peahen.jpg


Competition3

COMPETITION

Organisms in an ecosystem have to

compete with each other for available

resources:

space/territory

http://www.elise.com/weblog/photos/prairie-dogs.jpg

Prairie dogs - 5 to 35 per acre

Mountain lion- 1 male per 50-300 sq. mi

http://www.rilanationalpark.org/gr.phtml?dir=../../pictures/in_text&img=/65_1180.jpg


Competition4

COMPETITION

Organisms in an ecosystem have to

compete with each other for available

resources:

LIGHT

http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/chloroplasts.html

http://www.csjbacau.ro/gallery/images/Beech%20Tree%20Forest%20in%20Slanic%20Moldova.jpg


Ways organisms interact1

Ways organisms interact

___________________

Between DIFFERENT kinds of organisms

Hunt and kill other organisms to supply their energy needs

PREDATION

http://www.epa.gov/region5/superfund/ecology/images/fishcartoon.gif


Predation

PREDATION

Organisms in an ecosystem that capture and eat other organisms to supply their energy needs

http://personal.ecu.edu/wuenschk/rabbit-wolf.gif

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/pubs/images/wspred_6.jpg


Interdependence

INTERDEPENDENCE

All living and non-living things in an

ecosystem are interconnected and changing

even one thing impacts the whole ecosystem.

When one tugs at a single thing in nature,

he finds it attached to the rest of the world. 

~John Muir, naturalist, Sierra Club founder


Competition5

COMPETITION

If resources are scarce, some organisms will starve and populations will decrease.

If resources become more plentiful, populations will increase.

Competition in nature often results

in a winner and a loser

. . . with the loser failing to survive!


Ways organisms interact 4 2

If a nutrient is in _____________OR __________________

it will LIMIT the growth of the

population= _____________

SHORT SUPPLY

CYCLES SLOWLY

LIMITING FACTOR

During this drought,

there was not enough food

available and many kangaroos

starved.

http://www.wspa-international.org/exhibition/gallery/large_DeadKenyan%20droughtSPANA.jpg


Ways organisms interact 4 2

REMEMBER: EVERYTHING IS CONNECTED !

BIOLOGY; MIller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006

A decrease in the prey population means some predators will starve.

Fewer predators mean prey population will increase.

Increase in prey means more food for predators.

Predator population will increase until there is not enough food . . .

and the cycle repeats itself.


Limiting nutrient

LIMITING NUTRIENT

The short

supply of a

limiting

nutrient keeps

the population

in check.

When an ecosystem receives a LARGE input

of limiting nutrient (ie.,fertilizer runoff) the

population increases dramatically = ___________

http://www.greenfacts.org/images/glossary/algae-bloom.jpg

ALGAL BLOOM


Ways organisms interact2

Ways organisms interact

COOPERATION

__________________

Between SAME kind of organisms

Live together and help each other

http://www.mark-ju.net/wildlife/images/monkey03.jpg


Cooperation same species live together in groups ex herds packs colonies families etc

COOPERATIONSame species live together in groupsEX: herds, packs, colonies, families, etc

Share food &

childcare responsibilitiesGroom each other

Take care of sick

http://www.kenyatravelideas.com/african-elephants.html

http://www.sphoto.com/medium/meercats37.jpg

http://people.uleth.ca/~d.rendall/groom4.jpg


Cooperation same species live together in groups ex herds packs colonies families etc1

COOPERATIONSame species live together in groupsEX: herds, packs, colonies, families, etc

Hunt in packs

Provide protection

http://www.knology.net/~sgoswald/Eating.jpg

http://rosswarner.com/zebras1.jpg


Ways organisms interact3

Ways organisms interact

SYMBIOSIS

__________________________

Between DIFFERENT kinds of organisms

Live in close association with another kind of organism

http://www.zahnersatz.com/english/library/symbiosis.jpg


3 kinds of symbiosis

3 KINDS of SYMBIOSIS

MUTUALISM

______________________

Both organisms benefit

______________________

One organism benefits;

Other is neither harmed nor helped

_____________________

One organism benefits;

Other is harmed in some way

COMMENSALISM

PARASITISM


Mutualism good for me good for you

MUTUALISM“Good for me - Good for you”

Birds eat parasites living

on the hides of giraffes and rhinos while enjoying protection from predators.

Groomed animals lose their pests.

http://www.imbt.org/science.htm

http://www.hugheshome.net/jon/africa02/images/rhino_bird_JPG.jpg


Mutualism good for me good for you1

MUTUALISM“Good for me - Good for you”

http://www.providence.edu/bio/faculty/adams/LECTUREProvCollegeMutualism.html

Insects transfer pollen

between plants as they

gather nectar for food.

http://www.yksd.com/DistanceEdCourses/YKSDbiology/lessons/SecondQuarterLessons/Chapter5/5-5/images/3-way-mutualism.jpg


Mutualism good for me good for you2

MUTUALISM“Good for me - Good for you”

Clown fish gets protection from enemies by hiding out in poisonous sea anemones

http://www.zahnersatz.com/english/library/symbiosis.jpg

Sea anemone gets

scraps of leftover

food dropped

by fish


Commensalism

COMMENSALISM

“Good for me - Doesn’t bother you”

http://www.geology.wmich.edu/gillespie/g322/Chapters/C16shark.gif

Pilot fish receive scraps of food dropped by shark;

Shark is neither harmed nor helped


Commensalism1

COMMENSALISM

“Good for me - Doesn’t bother you”

http://www.abyssal.com/meeks/images/hermit_crab.jpg

Hermit crabs make homes in shells abandoned by snails;

Snail is not harmed by crab


Parasitism

PARASITISM

http://www.geology.wmich.edu/gillespie/g322/Chapters/C16parasitism.whale.gif

“Good for me - Hurts you”

Barnacles are crustaceans that attach to the surface of whales

and feed on their skin and fluids; Whale is harmed


Parasitism1

PARASITISM

http://www.dogbreedinfo.com/guineafowltickphotos.htm

“Good for me - Hurts you”

Tick feeds on dog’s blood;

Dog has discomfort, can get diseases/infection from bite


Parasitism2

PARASITISM

“Good for me - Hurts you”

Tapeworms absorb food by living inside host intestine;

host is harmed

http://www.biology.ucok.edu/AnimalBiology/Platyhelminthes/tapeworms.jpg


Biogeochemical cycles 3 3

http://www.animationlibrary.com/search/?keywords=recycle

BIOGEOCHEMICALCYCLES3-3


Ways organisms interact 4 2

See a video clip about

CYCLES IN NATURE - Chap 3


Energy matter

http://mff.dsisd.net/Environment/Cycles.htm

ENERGY & MATTER

Energy is not the only thing

that moves through the ecosystem.

Atoms are never destroyed . . . only transformed.

Take a deep breath.

The atoms you just inhaled may have been inhaled by a dinosaur millions of years ago.

http://educ.queensu.ca/~fmc/august2004/pages/dinobreath.html


4 atoms make up 95 of the body in most organisms

4 ATOMS make up 95% of the body in most organisms

OXYGEN

CARBON

HYDROGEN

NITROGEN

The same molecules are passed around

again and again within the biosphere in

___________________________

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES


Water cycle

WATER CYCLE= ___________________

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

http://www.urbanrivers.org/water_cycle.html


Why is water important

WHY IS WATER IMPORTANT?

Makes up 60-70% of your body

Oxygen and Hydrogen are found in all the ________________________: carbohydrates, proteins,

nucleic acids, lipids

Hydrogen in H2O supplies

protons (H+) & electrons

for_______________

building blocks of cells

photosynthesis

http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/molecule.htm


Why is water important1

WHY IS WATER IMPORTANT?

SOLVENT

Water is a good _________________

Many molecules dissolve in water so it

provides a place for chemical reactions

to happen

Water doesn’t change temperature easily so it helps with

__________________

HOMEOSTASIS

http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/molecule.htm


Water cycle1

WATER CYCLE

evaporation

condensation

http://www.radio-canada.ca/jeunesse/fd6/000_images/cat/c_buee_c.gif


Ways organisms interact 4 2

http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/hmv1/watrshed/Etrans.htm

The evaporation of water from the surface of plant leaves

= ________________

TRANSPIRATION

The return of water tothe surface in the form of

rain, snow, sleet, hail, etc.

= ____________________

PRECIPITATION


Ways organisms interact 4 2

Image edited from: http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/water.html

WATER CYCLE

PH ONLINE LINK

Put in code: cbp-2033 Choose Start


Carbon cycle

CARBON CYCLE

CO2 in

atmosphere

CO2 in

ocean

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


4 main carbon reservoirs in biosphere

4 main CARBON reservoirs in BIOSPHERE

  • In ____________ as CO2 gas

  • In _______ as dissolved CO2 gas

  • On _______ in organisms, rocks, soil

  • __________ as coal & petroleum (fossil fuels) and calcium carbonate in rocks

atmosphere

ocean

land

Underground

CO2 in

atmosphere

CO2 in

Ocean

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


Where does co 2 in atmosphere come from

Where does CO2 in atmosphere come from?

CO2 in

atmosphere

CO2 in

Ocean

Volcanic activity

  • ________________

  • ______________

  • _________________

  • ____________ of dead organisms

Human activity (burning fossil fuels)

Cellular respiration

Decomposition

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


Why is carbon important

WHY IS CARBON IMPORTANT?

BUILDING BLOCKS

Found in all the _______________ of cells: carbohydrates, proteins,

nucleic acids, lipids

Image by Riedell

http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm


Why is carbon important1

WHY IS CARBON IMPORTANT?

Carbon in CO2 provides the atoms for

__________ production during __________________...

the fuel that all living things depend on.

GLUCOSE

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

http://www.science.siu.edu/plant-biology/PLB117/JPEGs%20CD/0076.JPG

http://www.biologyclass.net/mitochondria.jpg


Ways organisms interact 4 2

NITROGEN CYCLE

Section 3-3

N2 in Atmosphere

NO3-

and NO2-

NH3

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


Why is nitrogen important

WHY IS NITROGEN IMPORTANT?

NITROGEN BASES

__________________make DNA and RNA

ATP

Adenine (nitrogen base) is used in _______

amino acids

Makes AMINO part of _________ (proteins)

Image by Riedell

Image by Riedell

http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm


79 of the atmosphere is made up of nitrogen gas n 2

79% of the atmosphere is made up of NITROGEN gas (N2)

BUT we _____ use the nitrogen gas

we breathe!

The bond in N2 gas is so

strong it can only be broken by

_______________

_______________

____________________

CAN’T

lightning

Volcanic activity

few special bacteria

Image by Riedell

Image by Riedell

http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm


Ways organisms interact 4 2

Bacteria that live ______________

and in _________ relationships with

plants called _________, take

nitrogen from the atmosphere and

turn it into ______________, a form

that is usable by plants.

THIS PROCESS

IS CALLED_________________

in the soil

symbiotic

legumes

AMMONIA (NH3)

NITROGEN FIXATION

http://www.slic2.wsu.edu:82/hurlbert/micro101/images/101nodules21.gif


Ways organisms interact 4 2

Other bacteria in the soil convert

ammonia into ________________

& _________________

which plants can also use.

The nitrogen we need for proteins,

ATP, and nucleic acids comes from

the ___________

___________

we breathe!

NITRATES (NO3- )

& NITRITES (NO2-)

FOOD WE EAT

NOT THE AIR

Image from: http://www.utdallas.edu/images/departments/biology/misc/gonzalez-image.jpg and http://www.cibike.org/CartoonEating.gif

modified by Riedell


Ways organisms interact 4 2

NITROGEN CYCLE

Section 3-3

N2 in Atmosphere

NO3-

and NO2-

NH3

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


Ways organisms interact 4 2

Bacteria that live ______________

also carry out the reverse process

___________ → _____________.

THIS PROCESS

IS CALLED_________________

in the soil

NITRATES

& NITRITES

NITROGEN GAS

DENITRIFICATION


Phosphorus cycle

Image from: Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

Phosphate moves

through food web

Weathering wears away rocks and sediments and releases phosphate into soil and water

Producers absorb phosphate from soil and water

Phosphate returns to soil and water from waste or decomposition

Sediments form “new land”to complete cycle


Ways organisms interact 4 2

Phosphorus cycle

is only biogeochemical

cycle that does

NOT cycle through the ______________

atmosphere

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


Why is phosphorus important

WHY IS PHOSPHORUS IMPORTANT?

Makes DNA and RNA

Transfers energy as ATP

Makes phospholipids for cell membranes

Image by Riedell

Image by Riedell

http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm


South dakota core science standards

SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 3: Analyze how organisms are linked to

oneanother and the environment.

9-12.L.3.1. Students are able to identify factors that can cause changes in stability of populations, communities, and ecosystems.

  • Define populations, communities, ecosystems, niches

    and symbiotic relationships.

  • Predict the results of biotic and abiotic interactions.

    Examples:

    Dormancy and migrationFluctuation in available resources (water, food, shelter)Biogeochemical cycles Energy flowCooperation and competition in ecosystems


South dakota core science standards1

SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 3: Analyze how organisms are linked to one another

and the environment.

9-12.L.3.1. Students are able to identify factors that can cause changes in stability of populations, communities, and ecosystems.

  • Define populations, communities, ecosystems, niches and symbiotic relationships.

  • Predict the results of biotic and abiotic interactions.

    Examples:

    Fluctuation in available resources (water, food, shelter)Energy flow


Core high school life earth science performance descriptors

Core High School Life/Earth SciencePerformance Descriptors


South dakota core science standards2

SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 3: Analyze how organisms are linked to one another

and the environment.

9-12.L.3.1. Students are able to identify factors that can cause changes in stability of populations, communities, and ecosystems.

  • Predict the results of biotic and abiotic interactions.

    Examples:

    Fluctuation in available resources (water, food, shelter) Biogeochemical cycles


Ways organisms interact 4 2

SOUTH DAKOTA CORE EARTH SCIENCE STANDARDS

Indicator 1: Analyze the various structures and processes of the Earth system.

9-12.E.1.1. Students are able to explain how elements and compounds cycle between living and non-living systems.

  • Diagram and describe the N, C, O and H2O cycles.

  • Describe the importance of the N, C, O and H2O cycles to life on this planet.

    Examples: water cycle including evaporation, cloud formation, condensation.


South dakota advanced science standards

SOUTH DAKOTA ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS

EARTH SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Analyze the various structures and processes

of the Earth system.

9-12.E.1.1.A Students are able to explain how elements and compounds cycle between living and non-living systems.

  • Diagram and describe the P, S, and Ca cycles.


Core high school earth science performance descriptors

Core High School Earth SciencePerformance Descriptors


Image bibliography

IMAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/summer2004/lect02.htm

Paint image by Riedell

Paint image by Riedell

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookCHEM2.html#Organic%20molecules

http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/images/dna_bases.gif


Ways organisms interact 4 2

http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/BIOL115/Wyatt/Biochem/Carbos/Carb_poly.gif

http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/golgi.html

http://www.science.siu.edu/plant-biology/PLB117/JPEGs%20CD/0076.JPG

http://classes.kumc.edu/som/bioc801/lectures/images/mem01-08.gif

http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_nucleus.html


Ways organisms interact 4 2

http://www.biologyclass.net/mitochondria.jpe

http://www.ncu.edu.tw/~ls/graph/faculty_pictures/whole_time/SLC/SLC_lab-1.jpg

http://www.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp/~anatomy2/BON/1016A03.jpg

http://www.carolguze.com/text/102-19-tissuesorgansystems.shtml

http://academic.pg.cc.md.us/~aimholtz/AandP/206_ONLINE/Immune/Innate_Images/cilia.jpg

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookAnimalTS.html

http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_19/147b.gif


Ways organisms interact 4 2

http://vilenski.org/science/safari/fungus/fungus.html

http://www.proctitispages.force9.co.uk/

http://www.harrythecat.com/graphics/

http://bestanimations.com

http://www.inclusive.co.uk/downloads/images/pics2/tree.gif

http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/homepage.htm

http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/animal%20dissections.htm


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