The union of upper and lower egypt
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The Union of Upper and Lower Egypt. The Union of Two Lands. Ancient Egypt had two parts: Upper and Lower Egypt Upper Egypt (Southern Part): Stretched for 500 miles from the Nile’s first cataract northward to the beginning of the Nile Delta.

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The Union of Upper and Lower Egypt

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The union of upper and lower egypt

The Union of Upper and Lower Egypt


The union of two lands

The Union of Two Lands

  • Ancient Egypt had two parts: Upper and Lower Egypt

  • Upper Egypt (Southern Part): Stretched for 500 miles from the Nile’s first cataract northward to the beginning of the Nile Delta.

  • Lower Egypt (Northern Part): The Nile Delta, 100 miles long but many times wider than Upper Egypt.


Maps of upper and lower egypt

Maps of Upper and Lower Egypt


Two lands cont

Two Lands (cont.)

  • 3300 B.C.E. both Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt had kings.

  • Upper Egypt’s king wore a tall, white bowling pin shaped crown.

  • Lower Egypt’s king wore a short, boxy, red crown with a tall spike at the back and a curlicue at the front.

  • Knowledge of pre-historic Egypt is mixed with legend.


The crowns of upper and lower egypt

The Crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt


Menes legend or fact

Menes: Legend or Fact?

  • Legend: 3100 B.C.E. Menes defeated the king of lower Egypt and declared himself the king of both Lower and Upper Egypt.

  • Menes designed a new crown to celebrate his victory, the double crown stood for the union of the two lands.

  • Menes and his family formed the first Egyptian Dynasty

  • Dynasty = A series of rulers from the same family

  • Believed to establish the ancient city of Memphis

    • http://www.randmcnally.com/rmc/EdPub/action/showFlashGame.do?appType=IHM&flashAppName=MostPopulousCity.swf&hasIHM=true&TITLE=The%20Most%20Populous%20City%20in%20World,%203200%20B.C.-Present%20(INTERACTIVE)&OID=1073912326


The combined crowns of upper and lower egypt

The Combined Crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt


Menes or narmer

Menes or Narmer

  • Historians believe the Menes may have been a real king possibly by the name of Narmer.

    • Narmer is the name of the historical figure

    • Menes is the name of the legendary king

  • There is strong archeological evidence for this: The Macehead of King Narmer describes the unification of Egypt


The narmer palette

The Narmer Palette


The macehead of king narmer

The Macehead of King Narmer


Old kingdom 2600 b c e 2100 b c e

Old Kingdom- 2600 B.C.E. – 2100 B.C.E.

  • During the period of the Old Kingdom Egyptian cities became centers of religion and government. Kings, priests, government officials and artisans lived there.

    • Most Egyptians did not live in cities: They lived on large Nile-side estates.

  • Wealthy Landowners and artisans

    • Farmers who lived on the estates: Worked the land

  • Pyramid Building Kingdom

  • Why did Egyptians build the pyramids on the west side of the Nile?


Pyramid cross section

Pyramid Cross-Section

  • Built as burial chambers for Pharaohs

  • Used as a tool for helping the pharaohs reach the afterlife

    • Why did the Egyptians stop building pyramids?

Interactive tour

through Khufu’s Pyramid

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/explore/khufudeschi.html


Pyramids at giza

Pyramids at Giza


The sphinx

The Sphinx

  • Interactive image of Sphinx below

  • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/egypt/explore/sphinx.html

    • Body of a Lion, head of a man

    • Believed to reflect the likeness of Kafre

    • Guardian of Pyramid complex


    Embalmment and mummification

    Embalmment and Mummification

    • Egyptian Priests used various substances to preserve the bodies of important Egyptians

      • Natron – drying agent

    • Why?

      • The body needed to be recognized by the “Ka” in order to make it safely to the afterlife.


    Rosetta stone

    Rosetta Stone

    • 1799 French Soldiers, near Rosetta, a town in the Nile Delta unearthed a large Black Stone Slab.

    • The same passage is written on the stone in three ways: Egyptian Hieroglyphics, a form of Egyptian cursive (Demotic or Coptic) and Greek.

    • For 20 years scholars try to decipher the stone with no success…then…


    Jean francois champollion

    Jean Francois Champollion

    • Champollion knew that part of the message was same in all three passages: It praised Pharoah Ptolemy V for gifts he had given the temples.

    • One day in 1822, Champllion was studying Greek and Hieroglyphics and he was able to match sounds and Hieroglyphs in the proper names Cleopatra and Ptolemy.


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