slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
FACT:

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 83

FACT: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 93 Views
  • Uploaded on

FACT:. Chemical reactions happen because electrons are shared or transferred from one substance to another. Write a mathematical equation that allows us to predict the Max # of electrons if we know the energy level (n). Max # = …n…. Equation to calculate Max # of e -. 2 n 2.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' FACT:' - clarke


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1
FACT:

Chemical reactions happen

because

electrons are shared

or transferred from

one substance to another

slide2
Write a mathematical equation that allows us to predict the Max # of electrons if we know the energy level (n)

Max # = …n…

equation to calculate max of e
Equation to calculate Max # of e-

2n2

Where n is any energy level

there are 4 quantum s and
There are 4 Quantum #s and

those #s are used to describe where an electron is likely to be found at any given time

slide5
This is a lot like being able to use four “places” to describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.
the first number

The Principle

Quantum # = n

The first number

(a.k.a. The Electron

Energy level)

principle quantum

Specifies the electron energy level that the electron is on

Principle Quantum #

n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

2 nd quantum

ℓ = s, p, d, f

2nd Quantum # = ℓ

Specifies the shape of the orbital or

sub-energy level

slide10

2nd Quantum #

Students (sleeping) (s)sitting prone at desk (p)“darn” I have to sit up (d)forget this standing up in class (f)

ℓ = s, p, d, f

slide11

p

d

f

s

slide13

3rd Quantum # = m

m = x,y,z

3-d World

Like tables arranged at different angles in the classroom

slide15

4th Quantum # = ms

ms = + ½or–½

Clockwise or counterclockwise

Specifies the

electron’s spin

+

slide16

QUANTUM

NUMBERS

n ---> shell 1, 2, 3, 4, ...

l ---> subshell s,p,d,f

ml ---> orbital x,y,z ( 3-D)

ms ---> electron spin

periods
PERIODS
  • The number of each period shows the principal energy level
slide20

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Lanthanide 4f

Actinide 5f

periods1
PERIODS
  • Horizontal rows of the table are called periods or rows.
groups
GROUPS
  • The vertical columns of the Periodic Table are called groups or families.
slide23

lA

0

1

lllA

lVA

VA

VIA

VlIA

llA

2

3

lllB

lVB

VB

VlB

VllB

VlllB

lB

llB

4

5

6

7

groups1
Groups

At F O N Home

18

1

Diatomic Elements

H2 N2 O2F2Cl2Br2I2

2

13

14

15

16

17

Transition Metals

9

3

4

5

6

7

8

10

11

12

slide25

NON-METALS

METALS

METALLOIDS

diagonal rule order of filling orbitals due to increasing energy lowest energy level 1
DIAGONAL RULEOrder of Filling orbitals due to increasing energy (Lowest energy level – 1)
  • Draw a diagram putting each

energy shell on a row .

  • Listing the orbitals,

(s, p, d, f), (left-to-right)

1s

2s 2p

3s 3p 3d

4s 4p 4d 4f

5s 5p 5d 5f

6s 6p 6d

7s 7p

  • Next, draw arrows through

the diagonals, looping back

to the next diagonal each time

Aufbau Principleelectrons will fill orbitals of lowest energy first, then fill according to increasing energy.

diagonal rule
Diagonal Rule
  • Steps:
  • Write the energy levels top to bottom.
  • Write the orbitals in s, p, d, f order. Write the same number of orbitals as the energy level.
  • Draw diagonal lines from the top right to the bottom left.
  • To get the correct order, follow the arrows!

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

s

s 2p

s 3p 3d

s 4p 4d 4f

By this point, we are past the current periodic table so we can stop.

s 5p 5d 5f 5g?

s 6p 6d 6f 6g? 6h?

s 7p 7d 7f 7g? 7h? 7i?

order of electron subshell filling it does not go in order
Order of Electron Subshell Filling:It does not go “in order”

Where is Ag on the Per. Table?

1s2

2s2

2p6

3s2

3p6

3d10

4s2

4p6

4d10

4f14

5s2

5p6

5d10

5f14

6s2

6p6

6d10

  • Ag
  • 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s24d9

7s2

7p6

orbital

ORBITAL

2 e-

6 e-

Space occupied by a pair of electrons

10 e-

14 e-

so why do electrons fill in like they do

So why do electrons fill in like they do?

Why is K’s last electron in the 4th energy level?

2 factors influencing electron placement

2 Factors Influencing Electron Placement

  • Energy Level
  • - Closer to nucleus=easy

2. Orbital or Subenergy

level (shape) - spdf

electron configuration

Electron Configuration

A detailed way of showing the order

in which electrons

fill in around the nucleus

electron configuration symbols

What element is this?

# of e- in sub-energy level

Electron Configuration Symbols

5f3

Sub-Energy Level

Energy Level

electron configurations
Electron Configurations

What element

is this?

2p4

Number of electrons in the sublevel

Energy Level

Sublevel

electron configuration1
Electron Configuration

2p4

4f14

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14…etc.

writing electron configurations
Writing Electron Configurations
  • Strategy: start with hydrogen, and build theconfiguration one electron at a time(Aufbau principle)
  • 1. In the H put 1s1; above He put 1s2; in Li 2s1, Be 2s2, In B put 2p1; in C put 2p1; etc across the chart.
  • 2. Fill subshells in order by counting across periods, from hydrogenup to the element of interest:

Click here

slide39

PERIODIC TABLE WORKSHEET

Give the location of the last electron for all of the elements on the periodic table below.

1s2

1s1

2s1

2p1

2p2

2s2

4s2

3d1

5d1

5d5

6p3

5f1

Click here…

slide41

Bohr Models

vs.

Electron Configurations

K

K 19e-

K:

1s2

3s2

3p6

4s1

2p6

2s2

write the e config for

1s1

Write the e-config for:

1s2

He:

Li:

1s22s1

H:

K:

1s22s22p63s23p64s1

Al:

1s22s22p63s23p1

noble gas shortcut

K:

1s22s22p63s23p64s1

Noble Gas Shortcut

K:

[Ar] 4s1

So what is different?

electron configuration from the periodic table
Electron Configuration fromthe Periodic Table

8A

1A

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

3A

4A

5A

6A

7A

2A

Ne

P

3s2

3p3

P = [Ne]3s23p3

P has 5 valence electrons

electron configuration from the periodic table1
Electron Configuration fromthe Periodic Table

8A

1A

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

3A

4A

5A

6A

7A

2A

3d10

Ar

As

4s2

4p3

As = [Ar]4s23d104p3

As has 5 valence electrons

slide46

Noble Gas Configuration

  • Find the symbol for the element zinc. [Zn]

2. Write the symbol in brackets for the nearest, smaller noble gas. [Ar]

3. Write the outer electron configuration for the

remaining electrons.

[Ar] 4s2 3d10

1s22s22p63s23p4

Ex. 1.S

[Ne]3s23p4

1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d4

2. W

[Xe]6s24f145d4

orbital notation

Orbital Notation

Electrons are distributed in the electron cloud into:

principal energy levels(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7),

sublevels (s, p, d, f),

orbitals (s has 1, p has 3, d has 5, f has7)

and

spin(2 electrons allowed per orbital).

arrow orbital notation

Arrow-Orbital Notation

A way to show orbital filling, spin, relative energy

fluorine s orbital notation
Fluorine’s Orbital notation

s = ____ ( One orbital / 1 line)

p = ____ ____ ____ ( 3 orbitals/ 3 lines)

d = ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ( 5 orbitals/ 5 lines)

f = ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ( 7 orbitals/ 7 lines)

orbital diagrams

unoccupied

orbital

orbital with

1 electron

orbital with

2 electrons

Orbital Diagrams
  • an orbital is represented as a square and the
  • electrons in that orbital as arrows
    • the direction of the arrow represents the spin of the electron
example write the orbital diagram and electron configuration of magnesium

1s

2s

2p

3s

3p

Example – Write the Orbital Diagram and Electron Configuration ofMagnesium.

1. Draw 9 boxes to represent the first 3 energy levels s andp orbitals

example write the orbital diagram and electron configuration of magnesium1
Example – Write the Orbital Diagram and Electron Configuration ofMagnesium.

2. Add one electron to each box in a set, then pair the electrons before going to the next set until you use all the electrons

  • When pair, put in opposite arrows







1s

2s

2p

3s

3p

example write the ground state orbital diagram and electron configuration of magnesium



1s



2s



2p







3s

3p

Example – Write the Ground State Orbital Diagram and Electron Configuration of Magnesium.

3. Use diagram to write the electron configuration

  • Write the number of electrons in each set as a superscript next to the name of the orbital set

1s2 2s2 2p63s2= [Ne]3s2

arrow orbital diagrams
Arrow-Orbital Diagrams

What is this element?

Energy

3d

4s

3p

3s

2p

2s

1s

lewis electron dot diagrams

Lewis Electron Dot Diagrams

The easiest way to represent the # of valance electrons

lewis structures
Lewis Structures

Find your element on the periodic table.

Determine the number of valence electrons.

P = E

This is how many electrons you will draw.

lewis structures1
Lewis Structures
  • Find out which group (column) your element is in.
  • This will tell you the number of valence electrons your element has.
  • You will only draw the valence electrons.

www.chem4kids.com

groups review
Groups - Review

Group 8 = 8 electrons

Group 1 = 1 electron

Except for He, it has 2 electrons

Group 2 = 2 electrons

3,4,5,6,7

  • Each column is called a “group”
  • Each element in a group has the same number of electrons in their outer orbital, also known as “shells”.
  • The electrons in the outer shell are called “valence electrons”

www.chem4kids.com

electron dot diagrams visual representations of elements and their valence electrons
ELECTRON DOT DIAGRAMS:visual representations of elements and their valence electrons

Standard form:

3

6

R

4

1

7

2

5

8

Order of electron/dot placement

element symbol

Example:

O

6 valence electrons

Oxygen

slide61

Outer shell e- (s)

Outer shell

electrons

Gain/lose e-

charge

Group 1

s1

1 outer shell e-

Lose 1e-

+1

Group 2

s2

2

Lose 2e-

+2

Group 13

s2p1

3

Lose 3e-

+3

Group 14

s2p2

4

Lose 4e- or

Gain 4e-

+4

-4

Group 15

s2p3

5

Lose 3e-

-3

Group 16

s2p4

6

Lose 2e-

-2

Group 17

s2p5

7

Lose 1e-

-1

Group 18

s2p6

8

Full octet

Valence electrons:electrons that are in the outermost shell

(unfilled orbitals) (outer shell electrons) [s + p] e- (s)

slide62

6th

3rd

4th

Symbol

2nd

7th

1st

5th

8th

Fill in Electron Dots

Lewis Dot Diagram

Ex: Px

Py X s

Pz

what up
What up?

Why will you never have more than eightdots?

3

6

Kr

4

2

7

1

This is called theoctet rule.

5

8

lewis structures2
Lewis Structures

C

Write the element symbol.

Carbon is in the 4th group, so it has 4 valence electrons.

Starting at the right, draw 4 electrons, or dots, counter-clockwise around the element symbol.

lewis structures3
Lewis Structures

H

Try these elements

on your own:

  • H
  • P
  • Ca
  • Ar
  • Cl
  • Al
lewis structures4
Lewis Structures

P

Try these elements

on your own:

  • H
  • P
  • Ca
  • Ar
  • Cl
  • Al
lewis structures5
Lewis Structures

Ca

Try these elements

on your own:

  • H
  • P
  • Ca
  • Ar
  • Cl
  • Al
lewis structures6
Lewis Structures

Ar

Try these elements

on your own:

  • H
  • P
  • Ca
  • Ar
  • Cl
  • Al
lewis structures7
Lewis Structures

Cl

Try these elements

on your own:

  • H
  • P
  • Ca
  • Ar
  • Cl
  • Al
lewis structures8
Lewis Structures

Al

Try these elements

on your own:

  • H
  • P
  • Ca
  • Ar
  • Cl
  • Al
valence electrons

Valence Electrons

Electrons in the outermost energy level

(involved in chemical reactions)

valence electrons1
Valence Electrons

Electrons are divided between core and valence electrons

B 1s2 2s2 2p1

Core = [He] , valence = 2s2 2p1

Add s+p = valence electrons

Br [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5

Core = [Ar] 3d10 , valence = 4s2 4p5

keep an eye on those ions
Keep an Eye On Those Ions!
  • Tin

Atom: [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p2

Sn+4 ion: [Kr] 4d10

Sn+2 ion: [Kr] 5s2 4d10

Note that the electrons came out of the highest energy level, not the highest energy orbital!

keep an eye on those ions1
Keep an Eye On Those Ions!
  • Bromine

Atom: [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p5

Br- ion: [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p6

Note that the electrons went into the highest energy level, not the highest energy orbital!

keep an eye on those ions2
Keep an Eye On Those Ions!
  • Electrons are lost or gained like they always are with ions…
  • negative ions have gained electrons, positive ions have lost electrons
  • The electrons that are lost or gained should be added/removed from the highest energy level (not the highest orbital in energy!)
valence electrons2
Valence Electrons

Rb = 37 electrons = 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6 5s1

  • the highest principal energy shell of Rb that contains electrons is the 5th, therefore Rb has 1 valence electron and 36 core electrons

Kr = 36 electrons = 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6

  • the highest principal energy shell of Kr that contains electrons is the 4th, therefore Kr has 8 valence electrons and 28 core electrons
quantum review

Quantum Review

1st Q# Principle (n) : Energy Level

2nd Q# (ℓ): Shape of sub (s,p,d,f)

3rd Q# (m) : Orientation of Orbital

(3-D x,y,z)

4th Q#(ms): Spin of e- (Clockwise/counterclockwise)

aufbau principle

AufbauPrinciple

All lower energy sublevels must be full before high energy sublevels begin filling in

1s

2s 2p

3s 3p 3d

4s 4p 4d 4f

5s 5p 5d 5f

6s 6p 6d

7s 7p

pauli exclusion principle

Pauli Exclusion Principle

An atomic orbital can only hold 2 electrons

Each electron has its own spin.

hund s rule

Hund’s Rule

Within the same sublevel, electrons fill empty orbitals first,

then complete the half filled orbitals

ad