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FACT:. Chemical reactions happen because electrons are shared or transferred from one substance to another. Write a mathematical equation that allows us to predict the Max # of electrons if we know the energy level (n). Max # = …n…. Equation to calculate Max # of e -. 2 n 2.

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FACT:

Chemical reactions happen

because

electrons are shared

or transferred from

one substance to another


Write a mathematical equation that allows us to predict the Max # of electrons if we know the energy level (n)

Max # = …n…


Equation to calculate max of e
Equation to calculate Max # of e the -

2n2

Where n is any energy level


There are 4 quantum s and
There are 4 Quantum #s the and

those #s are used to describe where an electron is likely to be found at any given time


This is a lot like being able to use four “places” to describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.


The first number

The Principle describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

Quantum # = n

The first number

(a.k.a. The Electron

Energy level)


Principle quantum

Specifies the electron describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.energy level that the electron is on

Principle Quantum #

n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7


1 st principle quantum ex floor number in our school building
1 describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.st Principle Quantum #Ex: (Floor number in our school building)

2nd Floor


2 nd quantum

ℓ = s, p, d, f describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

2nd Quantum # = ℓ

Specifies the shape of the orbital or

sub-energy level


2 describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.nd Quantum #

Students (sleeping) (s)sitting prone at desk (p)“darn” I have to sit up (d)forget this standing up in class (f)

ℓ = s, p, d, f


p describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

d

f

s


Sub energy levels
Sub-Energy Levels describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.


3 describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.rd Quantum # = m

m = x,y,z

3-d World

Like tables arranged at different angles in the classroom


Sub-Energy Levels describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday. s,p,d,f


4 describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.th Quantum # = ms

ms = + ½or–½

Clockwise or counterclockwise

Specifies the

electron’s spin

+


QUANTUM describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

NUMBERS

n ---> shell 1, 2, 3, 4, ...

l ---> subshell s,p,d,f

ml ---> orbital x,y,z ( 3-D)

ms ---> electron spin


Periodic table review
PERIODIC TABLE review describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.


Periods and groups
Periods describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.and Groups


Periods
PERIODS describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

  • The number of each period shows the principal energy level


1 describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

2

3

4

5

6

7

Lanthanide 4f

Actinide 5f


Periods1
PERIODS describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

  • Horizontal rows of the table are called periods or rows.


Groups
GROUPS describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

  • The vertical columns of the Periodic Table are called groups or families.


lA describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

0

1

lllA

lVA

VA

VIA

VlIA

llA

2

3

lllB

lVB

VB

VlB

VllB

VlllB

lB

llB

4

5

6

7


Groups1
Groups describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

At F O N Home

18

1

Diatomic Elements

H2 N2 O2F2Cl2Br2I2

2

13

14

15

16

17

Transition Metals

9

3

4

5

6

7

8

10

11

12


NON-METALS describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

METALS

METALLOIDS


Diagonal rule order of filling orbitals due to increasing energy lowest energy level 1
DIAGONAL RULE describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.Order of Filling orbitals due to increasing energy (Lowest energy level – 1)

  • Draw a diagram putting each

    energy shell on a row .

  • Listing the orbitals,

    (s, p, d, f), (left-to-right)

1s

2s 2p

3s 3p 3d

4s 4p 4d 4f

5s 5p 5d 5f

6s 6p 6d

7s 7p

  • Next, draw arrows through

    the diagonals, looping back

    to the next diagonal each time

Aufbau Principleelectrons will fill orbitals of lowest energy first, then fill according to increasing energy.


Diagonal rule
Diagonal Rule describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

  • Steps:

  • Write the energy levels top to bottom.

  • Write the orbitals in s, p, d, f order. Write the same number of orbitals as the energy level.

  • Draw diagonal lines from the top right to the bottom left.

  • To get the correct order, follow the arrows!

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

s

s 2p

s 3p 3d

s 4p 4d 4f

By this point, we are past the current periodic table so we can stop.

s 5p 5d 5f 5g?

s 6p 6d 6f 6g? 6h?

s 7p 7d 7f 7g? 7h? 7i?


Order of electron subshell filling it does not go in order
Order of Electron Subshell Filling: describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.It does not go “in order”

Where is Ag on the Per. Table?

1s2

2s2

2p6

3s2

3p6

3d10

4s2

4p6

4d10

4f14

5s2

5p6

5d10

5f14

6s2

6p6

6d10

  • Ag

  • 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s24d9

7s2

7p6


Orbital

ORBITAL describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

2 e-

6 e-

Space occupied by a pair of electrons

10 e-

14 e-


Four sub energy levels
Four Sub-Energy Levels describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.


So why do electrons fill in like they do

So why do electrons fill in like they do? describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

Why is K’s last electron in the 4th energy level?


2 factors influencing electron placement

2 Factors Influencing Electron Placement describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

  • Energy Level

  • - Closer to nucleus=easy

2. Orbital or Subenergy

level (shape) - spdf


Electron configuration

Electron Configuration describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

A detailed way of showing the order

in which electrons

fill in around the nucleus


Electron configuration symbols

What element is this? describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

# of e- in sub-energy level

Electron Configuration Symbols

5f3

Sub-Energy Level

Energy Level


Electron configurations
Electron Configurations describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

What element

is this?

2p4

Number of electrons in the sublevel

Energy Level

Sublevel


Electron configuration1
Electron Configuration describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

2p4

4f14

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14…etc.


Writing electron configurations
Writing Electron Configurations describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

  • Strategy: start with hydrogen, and build theconfiguration one electron at a time(Aufbau principle)

  • 1. In the H put 1s1; above He put 1s2; in Li 2s1, Be 2s2, In B put 2p1; in C put 2p1; etc across the chart.

  • 2. Fill subshells in order by counting across periods, from hydrogenup to the element of interest:

Click here


PERIODIC TABLE WORKSHEET describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

Give the location of the last electron for all of the elements on the periodic table below.

1s2

1s1

2s1

2p1

2p2

2s2

4s2

3d1

5d1

5d5

6p3

5f1

Click here…


Bohr Models describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

vs.

Electron Configurations

K

K 19e-

K:

1s2

3s2

3p6

4s1

2p6

2s2


Write the e config for

1s describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.1

Write the e-config for:

1s2

He:

Li:

1s22s1

H:

K:

1s22s22p63s23p64s1

Al:

1s22s22p63s23p1


Noble gas shortcut

K: describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

1s22s22p63s23p64s1

Noble Gas Shortcut

K:

[Ar] 4s1

So what is different?


Electron configuration from the periodic table
Electron Configuration from describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.the Periodic Table

8A

1A

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

3A

4A

5A

6A

7A

2A

Ne

P

3s2

3p3

P = [Ne]3s23p3

P has 5 valence electrons


Electron configuration from the periodic table1
Electron Configuration from describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.the Periodic Table

8A

1A

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

3A

4A

5A

6A

7A

2A

3d10

Ar

As

4s2

4p3

As = [Ar]4s23d104p3

As has 5 valence electrons


Noble Gas Configuration describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

  • Find the symbol for the element zinc. [Zn]

2. Write the symbol in brackets for the nearest, smaller noble gas. [Ar]

3. Write the outer electron configuration for the

remaining electrons.

[Ar] 4s2 3d10

1s22s22p63s23p4

Ex. 1.S

[Ne]3s23p4

1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d4

2. W

[Xe]6s24f145d4


Orbital notation

Orbital Notation describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

Electrons are distributed in the electron cloud into:

principal energy levels(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7),

sublevels (s, p, d, f),

orbitals (s has 1, p has 3, d has 5, f has7)

and

spin(2 electrons allowed per orbital).


Arrow orbital notation

Arrow-Orbital Notation describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

A way to show orbital filling, spin, relative energy


Fluorine s orbital notation
Fluorine’s Orbital notation describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

s = ____ ( One orbital / 1 line)

p = ____ ____ ____ ( 3 orbitals/ 3 lines)

d = ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ( 5 orbitals/ 5 lines)

f = ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ( 7 orbitals/ 7 lines)


Orbital diagrams

unoccupied describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

orbital

orbital with

1 electron

orbital with

2 electrons

Orbital Diagrams

  • an orbital is represented as a square and the

  • electrons in that orbital as arrows

    • the direction of the arrow represents the spin of the electron


Example write the orbital diagram and electron configuration of magnesium

1s describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

2s

2p

3s

3p

Example – Write the Orbital Diagram and Electron Configuration ofMagnesium.

1. Draw 9 boxes to represent the first 3 energy levels s andp orbitals


Example write the orbital diagram and electron configuration of magnesium1
Example – describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.Write the Orbital Diagram and Electron Configuration ofMagnesium.

2. Add one electron to each box in a set, then pair the electrons before going to the next set until you use all the electrons

  • When pair, put in opposite arrows







1s

2s

2p

3s

3p


Example write the ground state orbital diagram and electron configuration of magnesium

describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

1s



2s



2p







3s

3p

Example – Write the Ground State Orbital Diagram and Electron Configuration of Magnesium.

3. Use diagram to write the electron configuration

  • Write the number of electrons in each set as a superscript next to the name of the orbital set

    1s2 2s2 2p63s2= [Ne]3s2


Arrow orbital diagrams
Arrow-Orbital Diagrams describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

What is this element?

Energy

3d

4s

3p

3s

2p

2s

1s


Lewis electron dot diagrams

Lewis Electron Dot Diagrams describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

The easiest way to represent the # of valance electrons


Lewis structures
Lewis Structures describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

Find your element on the periodic table.

Determine the number of valence electrons.

P = E

This is how many electrons you will draw.


Lewis structures1
Lewis Structures describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

  • Find out which group (column) your element is in.

  • This will tell you the number of valence electrons your element has.

  • You will only draw the valence electrons.

www.chem4kids.com


Groups review
Groups - Review describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

Group 8 = 8 electrons

Group 1 = 1 electron

Except for He, it has 2 electrons

Group 2 = 2 electrons

3,4,5,6,7

  • Each column is called a “group”

  • Each element in a group has the same number of electrons in their outer orbital, also known as “shells”.

  • The electrons in the outer shell are called “valence electrons”

www.chem4kids.com


Electron dot diagrams visual representations of elements and their valence electrons
ELECTRON DOT DIAGRAMS describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.:visual representations of elements and their valence electrons

Standard form:

3

6

R

4

1

7

2

5

8

Order of electron/dot placement

element symbol

Example:

O

6 valence electrons

Oxygen


Outer shell e- (s) describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

Outer shell

electrons

Gain/lose e-

charge

Group 1

s1

1 outer shell e-

Lose 1e-

+1

Group 2

s2

2

Lose 2e-

+2

Group 13

s2p1

3

Lose 3e-

+3

Group 14

s2p2

4

Lose 4e- or

Gain 4e-

+4

-4

Group 15

s2p3

5

Lose 3e-

-3

Group 16

s2p4

6

Lose 2e-

-2

Group 17

s2p5

7

Lose 1e-

-1

Group 18

s2p6

8

Full octet

Valence electrons:electrons that are in the outermost shell

(unfilled orbitals) (outer shell electrons) [s + p] e- (s)


6 describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.th

3rd

4th

Symbol

2nd

7th

1st

5th

8th

Fill in Electron Dots

Lewis Dot Diagram

Ex: Px

Py X s

Pz


What up
What up? describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

Why will you never have more than eightdots?

3

6

Kr

4

2

7

1

This is called theoctet rule.

5

8


ELECTRON Dot NOTATION describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.


Lewis structures2
Lewis Structures describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

C

Write the element symbol.

Carbon is in the 4th group, so it has 4 valence electrons.

Starting at the right, draw 4 electrons, or dots, counter-clockwise around the element symbol.


Lewis structures3
Lewis Structures describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

H

Try these elements

on your own:

  • H

  • P

  • Ca

  • Ar

  • Cl

  • Al


Lewis structures4
Lewis Structures describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

P

Try these elements

on your own:

  • H

  • P

  • Ca

  • Ar

  • Cl

  • Al


Lewis structures5
Lewis Structures describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

Ca

Try these elements

on your own:

  • H

  • P

  • Ca

  • Ar

  • Cl

  • Al


Lewis structures6
Lewis Structures describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

Ar

Try these elements

on your own:

  • H

  • P

  • Ca

  • Ar

  • Cl

  • Al


Lewis structures7
Lewis Structures describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

Cl

Try these elements

on your own:

  • H

  • P

  • Ca

  • Ar

  • Cl

  • Al


Lewis structures8
Lewis Structures describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

Al

Try these elements

on your own:

  • H

  • P

  • Ca

  • Ar

  • Cl

  • Al


Examples of lewis electron dots
Examples of Lewis Electron Dots describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.


Valence electrons

Valence Electrons describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

Electrons in the outermost energy level

(involved in chemical reactions)


Valence electrons1
Valence Electrons describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

Electrons are divided between core and valence electrons

B 1s2 2s2 2p1

Core = [He] , valence = 2s2 2p1

Add s+p = valence electrons

Br [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5

Core = [Ar] 3d10 , valence = 4s2 4p5


Keep an eye on those ions
Keep an Eye On Those Ions! describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

  • Tin

    Atom: [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p2

    Sn+4 ion: [Kr] 4d10

    Sn+2 ion: [Kr] 5s2 4d10

Note that the electrons came out of the highest energy level, not the highest energy orbital!


Keep an eye on those ions1
Keep an Eye On Those Ions! describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

  • Bromine

    Atom: [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p5

    Br- ion: [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p6

Note that the electrons went into the highest energy level, not the highest energy orbital!


Keep an eye on those ions2
Keep an Eye On Those Ions! describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

  • Electrons are lost or gained like they always are with ions…

  • negative ions have gained electrons, positive ions have lost electrons

  • The electrons that are lost or gained should be added/removed from the highest energy level (not the highest orbital in energy!)


Valence electrons2
Valence Electrons describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

Rb = 37 electrons = 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6 5s1

  • the highest principal energy shell of Rb that contains electrons is the 5th, therefore Rb has 1 valence electron and 36 core electrons

    Kr = 36 electrons = 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6

  • the highest principal energy shell of Kr that contains electrons is the 4th, therefore Kr has 8 valence electrons and 28 core electrons


Quantum review

Quantum Review describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

1st Q# Principle (n) : Energy Level

2nd Q# (ℓ): Shape of sub (s,p,d,f)

3rd Q# (m) : Orientation of Orbital

(3-D x,y,z)

4th Q#(ms): Spin of e- (Clockwise/counterclockwise)


Aufbau principle

Aufbau describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.Principle

All lower energy sublevels must be full before high energy sublevels begin filling in

1s

2s 2p

3s 3p 3d

4s 4p 4d 4f

5s 5p 5d 5f

6s 6p 6d

7s 7p


Pauli exclusion principle

Pauli Exclusion Principle describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

An atomic orbital can only hold 2 electrons

Each electron has its own spin.


Hund s rule

Hund’s Rule describe EXACTLY where Mrs. BB-G should be at 7:00AM on Friday.

Within the same sublevel, electrons fill empty orbitals first,

then complete the half filled orbitals


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