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TOPIC 2 . HISTORY OF PLANNING & URBANIZATION. TOPICS. URBAN GROWTH XIX CENTURY A MODEL OF URBAN GROWTH PLANING ISSUES OF THE XIX CENTURY URBAN GROWTH XX CENTURY PLANNING ISSUES XX CENTURY SIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES OF THE URBAN EXPERIENCE USA VS. EUROPE USA VS. DEVELOPING WORLD

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Topic 2

TOPIC 2

HISTORY OF PLANNING & URBANIZATION


Topics
TOPICS

  • URBAN GROWTH XIX CENTURY

  • A MODEL OF URBAN GROWTH

  • PLANING ISSUES OF THE XIX CENTURY

  • URBAN GROWTH XX CENTURY

  • PLANNING ISSUES XX CENTURY

  • SIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES OF THE URBAN EXPERIENCE

  • USA VS. EUROPE

  • USA VS. DEVELOPING WORLD

  • CONTEMPORARY URBAN PROBLEMS


Urban growth xix century
URBAN GROWTH XIX CENTURY

  • Farm productivity increase (less labor producing more output) releases some labor.

  • Industrialization (shift from cottage industry to mass production).

  • Demographic changes, in particular, migration.

  • Technological changes in transport and housing affected density and concentration.

  • Economic activities, mainly industry, are centralized and concentrated in the center of the city.

  • Urban growth reinforcing itself through the expansion of commercial activities.


A model of urban growth
A MODEL OF URBAN GROWTH

TRANSPORT

TECHNOLOGY

FARM

PRODUCTIVITY

INCREASES

GROWTH OF

CITIES

DEMOGRAPHICS

(B-D) + M

COMMERCIAL &

SERVICES

ACTIVITIES

INDUSTRY GROWTH

MASS PRODUCTION

HOUSING


Planning issues xix century
PLANNING ISSUES XIX CENTURY

  • Public health and sanitation are among the first urban problems planners begin dealing with.

  • Open space or parks become a preventive measure of some diseases.

  • Housing reform, mainly housing for the poor, also became another planning topic (zoning, housing codes, etc.) .

  • Levy describes planning as a fusion of art, architecture, and planning.


Planning issues xix century1
PLANNING ISSUES XIX CENTURY

  • A breakthrough event that gave planning its very existence is the recognition of establishing some public control over the use of private land.

  • Planning started to be seen as a means to deal with issues of interconnectedness and complexity giving as a a result master planning or comprehensive planning.

  • Planning little by little becomes a governmental function.



Urban growth xx century
URBAN GROWTH XX CENTURY

  • Decentralization forces begin emerging in tandem with improvements in transportation technology (water, railroads, electric cars, combustion engine or Ford’s model T).

  • Transportation becomes more flexible and individualized (the density gradient becomes flatter).

  • As the country and the population acquire wealth, particularly after WWII, population begins to move to the outskirts of the city and suburbs forming bedroom communities.


Urban growth xx century1
URBAN GROWTH XX CENTURY

  • Economic activities, such as retail and services, slowly begin to decentralize and deconcentrate from the center. Centrality begins to lose its meaning.

  • All of the above could have not been possible without federal programs such as FHA loans, National Defense Highway act of 1956, tax incentives, etc.

  • Finally, industry begin to move to the suburbs and the city is transformed from a monocentric to polycentric urban form.


Density gradient
DENSITY GRADIENT

Population

per square mile

Distance from the center


Planning issues xx century
PLANNING ISSUES XX CENTURY

  • A great shift in the XX century was the acceptance of the role of government, particularly federal, as a big planner due to the lessons of the Great Depression (TVA, highways & public parks are important examples).

  • Dams & other water public works are another important example, particularly, for the Southwest.

  • Urban Renewal or poor removal

  • Highway planning

  • Municipal planning (suburbanization)

  • Environmental planning (Late 1960s)

  • Equity planning (Civil rights movement)

  • Growth management (1980s)

  • Smart Growth (1990s)

  • Smarter growth


Similarities differences
SIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES

EUROPE VS. USA

  • How has history influenced the development of cities?

  • Why doesn’t Europe have the “problem” of the empty downtown?

  • How has Europe approached the issue of housing affordability?

  • Why has Europe evolved towards a more environmentally “friendly” policies?


Similarities differences1
SIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES

DEVELOPING WORLD VS. USA

  • What are the key differences of the urban process? What role does industrialization play? What role does the green revolution play?

  • What are the differences in the urban hierarchy of the USA and Mexico? Urban primacy vs. rank size rule.

  • How do the XIX century planning issues in the USA compare to the planning issues facing developing nations?

  • Are the differences in urban development disappearing or becoming sharper?

  • Are megacities such as Mexico City sustainable?


Stages of development

(Peter Hall)

First: rural to urban migration

Second: Industrialization

Third: Suburbanization

Fourth: Deconcentration

Fifth: Multicentric cities

C. Fuentes

First: the establishment of the border open the opportunities for commerce & services.

Second: the surge of maquiladoras (industry) reorganize the urban structure and started competing with commerce & services for location near the bridges.

Third: the transition from a monocentric to polycentric city.

Stages of development


A model of urban growth1
A MODEL OF URBAN GROWTH

TRANSPORT

TECHNOLOGY

FARM

PRODUCTIVITY

INCREASES

GROWTH OF

CITIES

DEMOGRAPHICS

(B-D) + M

COMMERCIAL &

SERVICES

ACTIVITIES

INDUSTRIAL GROWTH

MASS PRODUCTION

HOUSING


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