Applications of proximal gamma ray soil sensor systems
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Applications of proximal gamma ray soil sensor systems. Eddie Loonstra EGU 2011, SSS5.6 Vienna. The Soil Company, Leonard Springerlaan 9, 9727 KB Groningen, The Netherlands +31 50 5773240, [email protected] , www.soilcompany.com. Contents. Introduction Mole technology

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Applications of proximal gamma ray soil sensor systems

Applications of proximal gamma ray soil sensor systems.

Eddie Loonstra

EGU 2011, SSS5.6 Vienna

The Soil Company, Leonard Springerlaan 9, 9727 KB Groningen, The Netherlands

+31 50 5773240, [email protected] , www.soilcompany.com


Contents

Contents

  • Introduction Mole technology

  • Mole Nuclide Maps Apps

  • Mole derived Soil Maps Apps

  • Conclusion


Mole technology

Mole technology

  • Soils contain heavy unstable isotopes.

  • Disintegration of atoms.

  • Radio active radiation: α, β, and γ.


Mole technology1

Mole technology

Main emitted γ radiation and their half life times:

  • 238U4.46*109 yr

  • 232Th1.39*1010 yr

  • 40K1.3*109 yr

  • 137Cs30 yr


Mole technology2

Mole technology

  • 1992 State University Groningen (RuG) -> The Soil Company.

  • Mobile soil sensor system The Mole:

    • Detector material CsI

    • Standard spectra crystal specific

    • Full Spectrum Analysis (Chi-squared algorithm)


Surveys

Surveys


Mole nuclide maps

Mole nuclide maps

  • Quantitative output in Bq/kg: TC, 40K, 238U, 232Th, and 137Cs.


Mole nuclide maps1

Mole nuclide maps

  • Quality of soil:

    • Sport pitches during construction.

    • Variation Th to predict clay variation.

  • Contamination

    • Tsjernobyl

    • High unnatural U content

  • General soil types


Mole nuclide maps2

Mole nuclide maps

  • Soil abnormalities or disturbances

    • Dump spots of waste

    • Old brooks

    • Archeological sites

    • Deposits of dredging


Mole derived soil maps

Mole derived Soil Maps

  • Regression analysis comparing nuclide information with soil properties.

  • Correlations gamma and physical soil properties relative comparable for different regions and soil types (from Sweden down to India).


Mole derived soil maps1

Mole derived Soil Maps

  • Texture maps:

    • Clay%, sand%, grain size, soil type.

    • R2 0.75 – 0.9.

  • Nutrient maps:

    • Organic matter, pH, P, K, Mg, Ca.

    • R2 0.6 – 0.85.

  • Pedotransfer maps:

    • bulk density, water retention, field capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity.

    • Models WUR.

  • Risk maps:

    • Compaction, Trichodorides.

    • Models.


Mole derived soil maps2

Mole derived Soil Maps

Quality of soil, maintenance.

  • Bulb growers:

    • Barrenness of soil based on % sand, % OM and grain size.

  • Soccer pitches:

    • % sand, % OM, % clay and grain size.

  • Garden bushes & trees:

    • % sand, % OM, % clay and grain size.


Mole derived soil maps3

Mole derived Soil Maps

Quality of soil for crop

  • Golfcourse

    • pH and liming vs street grass

  • Agriculture, risk spots:

    • Variation pH for onions.

    • Clay content as habitat for trichodorides for potatoes.


Mole derived soil maps4

Mole derived Soil Maps

Quality of soil for crop

  • Golfcourse

    • pH and liming vs street grass

  • Agriculture, risk spots:

    • Variation pH for onions.

    • Clay content as habitat for trichodorides for potatoes.


Mole derived soil maps5

Mole derived Soil Maps

Precision Agriculture (NL)

  • Variable rate application

    • Liming

    • Fertilization

    • Irrigation

    • Planting and seeding

    • Herbicides

    • Soil preparation to prevent compaction


Mole derived soil maps6

Mole derived Soil Maps

Precision Ag: nitrogen.

  • Starch potatoes production:

    • Soils high variation in OM

    • Available nitrogen varies

    • VRA of liquid fertilizers leads to 3% yield increase

  • Consumer potatoes:

    • Heterogeneous soils for clay and OM

    • VRA of liquid fertilizer leads to a 15% financial benefit.


Mole derived soil maps7

Mole derived Soil Maps

Variable planting distance

  • Seed potatoes:

    • Clay map or water retention base for planting distance.

    • Size 28-55 best paid.

    • Average 4% income increase.

    • 240 – 500 euro/ha benefit.

  • Wheat and sugar beet


Irrigation

Irrigation

  • Consumer potato Egypt

    • Combining Mole water related soil maps and local weather information and water soil probe.

    • Applying right amount at the right time

    • Yield increase 8%, soft rot % drops with 3% to 1-2%.


Mole derived soil maps8

Mole derived Soil Maps

Miscellaneous:

  • Land pricing estate agents

  • Land degradation for nature (phosphates)

  • Pollution of heavy metals.


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Although not very wide spread in use, Mole gamma ray sensors can be a very powerful device for the quantitative mapping of top soil.

  • Nuclide data are applicable for building models of more or less stable soil properties.

  • Variation of nuclide values or modeled soil properties can be directly applied to get information on soils or indirectly for soil related practices, like precision ag.


Thank you for your attention

Thank you for your attention.

iSOIL- “Interactions between soil related sciences – Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping” is a Collaborative Project (Grant Agreement number 211386)  co-funded by the Research DG of the European Commission within the RTD activities of the FP7 Thematic Priority Environment.

This publication reflects the author’s views. The European Commission is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

The Soil Company, Leonard Springerlaan 9, 9727 KB Groningen, The Netherlands

+31 50 5773240, [email protected] , www.soilcompany.com


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