Responding to allergic reactions anaphylaxis
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Responding to Allergic Reactions & Anaphylaxis. By Dana Ashe, RN, CCHC Jackson County Health Department. Severe Allergic Reaction Training Pre-Test. Please fill in the blanks with F (false) and T (True) 1. _____ Anaphylaxis is a mild reaction to a substance you are allergic to.

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Responding to allergic reactions anaphylaxis

Responding to Allergic Reactions & Anaphylaxis

By Dana Ashe, RN, CCHC

Jackson County Health Department


Severe allergic reaction training pre test

Severe Allergic Reaction TrainingPre-Test

  • Please fill in the blanks with F (false) and T (True)

  • 1. _____ Anaphylaxis is a mild reaction to a substance you are allergic to.

  • 2. _____ The Epi-Pen and Epi-Pen Jr. can be used interchangeably.

  • 3. _____If you have never had an allergic reaction, you will probably never have one.

  • 4._____After administering the Epi-Pen, I should only call 911 if the parents want me to.

  • 5._____An Epi-Pen must always be kept in a locked container.

  • 6._____The Epi-Pen is a quick and painless way to administer epinephrine and save a child’s life.

    7. The body systems that are affected in an allergic reaction are: (Please Circle One)

    • A. The Skin

    • B. The Respiratory System

    • C. The Gastrointestinal System

    • D. The Sympathetic Nervous System

    • E. A and B

    • F. All of the above


Objectives

Objectives

  • The trainee will:

    • Learn what anaphylaxis is

    • Causes of anaphylaxis

    • Signs and symptoms

    • Treatment (antihistamine vs. EpiPen)

    • Learn how to use the EpiPen auto injector

    • Storage

    • When to implement an Individualized Emergency Care Plan.

    • When to call 911


Definition

Definition

  • Anaphylaxisis apotentially life- threatening allergic reaction caused by exposure to specific allergen triggers.

  • Rapid, severe, symptoms can be fatal within minutes or can take two hours or more.


Anyone can have an anaphylactic reaction

Anyone can have an Anaphylactic reaction!

  • After: ingestion

  • Inhalation

  • Skin Contact

  • Or: injection of an allergen

  • Allergens are substances that cause an overreaction of the body’s defense mechanism.


What do i look for

What do I look for?

  • Mild reactions are usually more localized.

  • The child will be able to participate in normal activities.

  • But! Always keep in mind: It only takes 1-2 minutes for a mild reaction to escalate to severe anaphylaxis!


Physical changes

Physical Changes

  • Itching of the skin/eyes (tears)

  • Raised rash (hives) – flushing

  • Headache

  • Nausea & Vomiting – Abdominal Cramps

  • Hoarseness –Cough-Wheezing

  • Shortness of Breath


Hives

Hives


Physical changes1

Physical Changes

  • Swelling of the tissues of the lips, throat, tongue, hands and feet.

  • Problem swallowing, Metallic taste

  • Anxiety

  • Sense of impending doom

  • Hypotension, dizziness or loss of consciousness


Swelling of the lips

Swelling of the lips


Angioedema

Angioedema

  • Angio – prefix that relates to blood vessels

  • Edema – The presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces (between the cells).

  • Severe allergic reactions cause angioedema deep in the soft tissue of the throat and neck causing the throat to swell shut, cutting off the person’s ability to breathe.


What causes anaphylaxis

What Causes Anaphylaxis???

  • Foods (leading cause outside hospital)

  • Some insect venoms (bee stings are common cause)

  • Medications

  • Latex Allergy

  • Exercise

  • Idiopathic


Foods

Foods

  • These 6 common foods account for 90% of reactions.

  • Milk

  • Eggs

  • Peanuts

  • Tree Nuts

  • Soy

  • Wheat


Responding to allergic reactions anaphylaxis

Other food triggers

may include:

  • Legumes

  • Cheese

  • Fruits

  • Unknown? (Idiopathic)


Insects

Insects

  • Bees

  • Wasp

  • Yellow Jackets

  • Hornets

  • Fire Ants


Medications

Medications

  • Antibiotics

    *Penicillin, Cephalosporins, etc.

  • Aspirin, NSAIDS

  • Chemotherapeutic Agents

  • Biological (Vaccines)

  • Radio Contrast Media


Latex allergy

Latex Allergy

  • Proteins in natural rubber latex

  • Rubber bands

  • Elastic (undergarments)

  • Hospital and dental equipment

  • !!!Latex dipped products are biggest culprits --- Baloons, gloves, bandages, water bottles, etc.


Exercise

Exercise

  • Exercise induced anaphylaxis is a form of physical allergy. Although the mechanism of action is unknown, it may be related to ingestion of some medications or foods before exercise.

  • Rare


Idiopathic

Idiopathic

  • Idiopathic anaphylaxis is a life threatening allergic reaction that occurs in the absence of any known allergen. IN OTHER WORDS, Nobody really knows what causes Idiopathic Anaphylaxis.


Remember

Remember

  • Common symptoms or a reaction can range from mild to severe. The severe or life threatening reactions are called anaphylaxis. No predictable pattern.

  • The time between exposurue to allergen and symptoms can vary depending on the allergen, exposure and sesnitivity.


Treatment

Treatment

  • Remove child from allergen contact.

  • Refer to care plan and provide medications and treatments as indicated.

  • Mild s/s may indicate need for antihistamine or decongestants.

  • Severe s/s may indicate need for epipen.


Treatment1

Treatment

  • Use epipen if required (per care plan instructions) – used for emergency symptoms as indicated.

  • After epipen ---Call 911!!! Don’t delay, the EpiPen is only effective for 15-20 minutes.

  • Call parents


Treatment2

Treatment

  • Child should be lying on back with feet elevated. Keep child warm and loosed tight clothing.

  • Don’t give anything to drink.

  • Comfort child

  • Monitor signs and symptoms

  • Do not leave child unattended.


Demonstration

Demonstration

EpiPen


Epipen jr

EpiPen Jr.

  • Used for children – delivers one dose of 0.15mg. Epiniphrine intramuscularly.


Epipen

EpiPen

  • Should be labeled with child’s name and stored with a copy of the care plan.

  • Store unlocked and out of reach of children.

  • Store away from direct sunlight.

  • Do not refrigerate.

  • Check expiration date monthly.

  • Check = replace if cloudy or discolored.


Epipen1

EpiPen

If EpiPen is expired, it is better to give it in an emergency than to give nothing at all!!


Anaphylactic prevention

Anaphylactic Prevention

  • Screen people at risk

  • See MD for proper diagnosis and treatment.

  • Wear Medic-alert* accidental exposures are never planned/be prepared!

  • Education on avoidance of allergens.


Responding to allergic reactions anaphylaxis

  • As many as 35% of people who have an anaphylactic reaction will experience a recurrence in the hours following the beginning of the reaction and will require further treatment, including addition epinephrine injections.


Management

Management

  • Identify children with allergies (review medical form and talk to parents).

  • Identify specific allergen.

  • Remove as many allergens from environment as possible.

  • Post allergies (helpful = child’s picture)


Management1

Management

  • Read labels – monitor ingredients

  • Obtain written MD instructions

  • Team approach to develop care plan

  • Learn to recognize s/s of mild to severe allergic reactions.


Management2

Management

  • Learn to administer emergency medications safely and appropriately. Know when and how to give meds (specific individual instructions on care plan).

  • Develop policies for safe storage and accessibility of emergency meds.

  • Call for help and stay calm!!


Post test

Post - Test

  • Please fill in the blanks with F (false) and T (True)

  • 1. ___F__ Anaphylaxis is a mild reaction to a substance you are allergic to.

  • 2. ___F__ The Epi-Pen and Epi-Pen Jr. can be used interchangeably.

  • 3. ___F__If you have never had an allergic reaction, you will probably never have one.

  • 4.___F__After administering the Epi-Pen, I should only call 911 if the parents want me to.

  • 5.___F__An Epi-Pen must always be kept in a locked container.

  • 6.___T__The Epi-Pen is a quick and painless way to administer epinephrine and save a child’s life.

    7. The body systems that are affected in an allergic reaction are: (Please Circle One)

    • A. The Skin

    • B. The Respiratory System

    • C. The Gastrointestinal System

    • D. The Sympathetic Nervous System

    • E. A and B

    • F. All of the above


References

References

Refer to Caring For Our Children Standard 4.010


Responding to allergic reactions anaphylaxis

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Questions?


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