Chapter 2 section 2 necessities of life
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Chapter 2 Section 2 –Necessities of Life PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 2 Section 2 –Necessities of Life. 4 Necessities of Life. Water (Most chemical reactions for “metabolism” – all organisms activities, including getting energy from food, growing. etc – requires water. May get from food.)

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Chapter 2 Section 2 –Necessities of Life

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Chapter 2 Section 2 –Necessities of Life


4 Necessities of Life

  • Water (Most chemical reactions for “metabolism” – all organisms activities, including getting energy from food, growing. etc – requires water. May get from food.)

  • Air (Need for chemical process to get energy from food. Some organisms (anaerobic) do not need air; some types of bacteria are examples.)

  • Shelter (Actually means having a place to live with access to all needs.)

  • Food (Need to have energy and materials to carry out life processes.)


Competition

Organisms often have to compete for food, water, shelter or other necessities.


“Making” vs. “Taking” Food

  • Producers: Make their own (produce) food via

    photosynthesis

  • Consumers: Must eat other (consume) organisms to get food

  • Types of Consumers:Herbivores (eat producers; ex: zebra)

    Carnivores (eat consumers; ex: lion)Omnivores (eat both; ex: brown bear)Detritivores (eat dead organisms; ex: vulture)Decomposers (detritivores that break down complex molecules in dead tissue/ wastes into simpler molecules; ex: mushrooms)


Putting It All Together

  • All organisms need to breakdown food to get/use nutrients.

  • Nutrients are made of molecules (substance made of >2 atoms).

  • Organisms’ molecules mostly made from 6 elements:carbon / hydrogen / nitrogen / oxygen / phosphorus / sulfur

  • Elements combine to make:proteins/ carbohydrates / lipids / ATP / nucleic acids


Proteins

  • Necessary for almost all life processes of cell

  • Made of amino acids (smaller molecules)

  • Many functions:

    • Some form structures (hair, spider webs)

    • Some help cells do jobs ( hemoglobin delivers oxygen thru body)

    • Some are enzymes (speed chemical reactions)

  • Needed to build and repair the body


  • Carbohydrates (Carbs)

    • Made of sugars

    • Provide and store energy

    • Simple Carbs

      • Made from 1 sugar or just a few sugar molecules

      • Examples: table sugars and fructose (sugar in fruit)

      • More common than complex carbs

  • Complex Carbs

    • Made from 100’s of sugar molecules which are linked

    • Example: potato starch


  • Lipids

    • Molecules that cannot mix with water

    • Have many jobs

    • Some store energy

      • Fats - animals

      • Oils – plants

  • Phospholipids

    • Make cell membranes

    • Pair up; “heads” attracted to water, and “tails” avoid water


  • ATP

    • Molecules called Adenosine Triphosphate

    • Job: major energy carrying molecule of cells

    • Energy from carbs or lipids are transformed to ATP to provide fuel


    Nucleic Acids

    • Molecules that carry directions for how to make proteins

    • Made of smaller molecules called nucleotides

    • Sequence stores information

    • DNA is an example of a nucleic acid which directs making proteins


    Additional Information

    • For additional information…especially chemistry…go to http:\\my.hrw.com . User name: minerva13 password: minervaThen visit the visual concepts for Ch 2 Section2


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