Mutations
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Mutations. Defined : one nucleotide is substituted for another May be repaired by DNA polymerase May lead to amino acid change See animation May not lead to any change Ex: DNA “CCC” is mutated into “CC G ” Same amino acid is created (glycine). Gene: Point Mutations. T. A. C. A. G. T.

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Gene point mutations

Defined: one nucleotide is substituted for another

May be repaired by DNA polymerase

May lead to amino acid change

See animation

May not lead to any change

Ex: DNA “CCC” is mutated into “CCG”

Same amino acid is created (glycine)

Gene: Point Mutations

T

A

C

A

G

T

G

G

T

C

A

A

A

DNA

U

G

U

C

A

C

A

C

A

G

U

U

U

mRNA

cysteine

glutamine

histidine

glutamine

phenylalanine

Amino acids


Gene frame shift mutation
Gene: Frame Shift Mutation

C

A

C

A

G

T

G

G

T

C

A

A

A

DNA

  • Defined: insertion/deletion of a nucleotide

  • Entire sequence of DNA/RNA after the mutation is shifted (see animation)

  • Much more serious to the structure/function of the final protein

    • mRNA sequence may have early or late “stop codons”

G

U

G

U

C

A

C

C

A

G

U

U

U

mRNA

cysteine

histidine

glutamine

phenylalanine

Amino acids

histidine

serine

leucine


Chromosome mutations
Chromosome Mutations

  • Translocation: Chromosome segments combine with nonhomologous chromosome

  • Many genes wind up on entirely different chromosomes

  • Gene cut apart

    • ½ on chr #5, ½ on chr #8


Down’s

Syndrome


Impact on offspring
Impact on Offspring

  • Somatic cell mutations

    • Affect only the individual

    • Not passed on to future generations

    • Ex: Muscle cell mutation

  • Germ cell mutations

    • May be passed to future generations

    • Ex: Sperm cell mutation


Mutation causes
Mutation Causes

  • Mutagen: agents in the environment that can change DNA

    • Speed up replication process

    • Break apart nucleotides

  • Ex: UV sunlight breaks hydrogen bond between thymine (T) and adenine (A)


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