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EEE 498/598 Overview of Electrical EngineeringPowerPoint Presentation

EEE 498/598 Overview of Electrical Engineering

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Lecture 1 Objectives

- To provide an overview of packaging.
- To review the electrical functions of a package.
- To understand the foundations of electrical engineering.
- To become aware of the topics that will be covered in this class.
- To define the coordinate systems that will be used in this class.

2

C4 Balls

Microvias

FCBGA

PTH Vias

BGA Balls

Interposer

Vias

Interposer

Pins

Overview of PackagingIHS

FCBGA

Interposer

Caps

Interposer

LSC

Pins

Interposer

FCBGA

Die

DSC

Courtesy of Intel Corp.

4

Overview of Packaging This course focuses on preparing students to understand the electrical principles.

- “Packaging engineers today must solve complex, coupled problems that require fundamental understanding of electrical, thermal, mechanical, material science, and manufacturing principles.”
- Dr. Nasser Grayeli, Intel Corporation

5

Electrical Functions of the Package

- Power Delivery
- Supply a clean power and reference voltage to active devices on the die.

- Signal Input/Output
- Transmit signals from the die to the motherboard faithfully and in minimum time.

- EMI/EMC
- Minimize radiation of electromagnetic energy into the environment, and the impact of ambient electromagnetic energy on circuit performance.

6

Foundations of Electrical Engineering

- Electrophysics.
- Information (Communications) Theory.
- Digital Logic.

80 % of this course

20 % of this course

Not covered in detail in this class

7

Foundations of Electrical Engineering

- Electrophysics:
- Fundamental theories of physics and important special cases.
- Phenomenological/behavioral models for situations where the rigorous physical theories are too difficult to apply.

8

Hypothesis, Model, and Theory

- A hypothesis is an idea or suggestion that has been put forward to explain a set of observations. It may be expressed in terms of a mathematical model. The model makes a number of predictions that can be tested in experiments. After many tests have been made, if the model can be refined to correctly describe the outcome of all experiments, it begins to have a greater status than a mere suggestion.
- A theory is a well-tested and well-established understanding of an underlying mechanism or process.

The material in this slide has been adapted from material at http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/theory/modeltheory.html.

9

Hypothesis, Model, and Theory

- Maxwell’s equations are ‘just a theory’ and yet my cell phone works!
- At one time, a theory would have been referred to as a ‘law’.
- Newton’s laws
- Boyle’s law

- But remember no theory is a complete description of all reality; all theories are incomplete.
- Electrical engineers make use of a number of theories – some of which are special cases of others.

10

Four Fundamental Forces of Physics

- Gravitational Force
- Associated particle is graviton (hypothesized)
- Always attractive
- Varies inversely as the square of the distance

- Electromagnetic Force
- Associated particle is photon
- 1042 times stronger than gravity
- Force can be attractive or repulsive
- Varies inversely as the square of the distance

- Strong Interaction
- Associated particle is gluon
- About 100X stronger than electromagnetic force but only acts over distances the size of an atomic nucleus
- Responsible for holding the protons and neutrons together

- Weak Interaction
- Associated particles are the weak gauge bosons (Z and W particles)
- Acts only over distances the size of an atomic nucleus
- Responsible for certain types of radioactive decay

11

The Standard Model

- Physicists call the theoretical framework that describes the interactions between elementary building blocks (quarks and leptons) and the force carriers (bosons) the Standard Model.
- Most of the standard model is a theory; some of it is still hypothesis.
- Physicists use the Standard Model to explain and calculate a vast variety of particle interactions and quantum phenomena. High-precision experiments have repeatedly verified subtle effects predicted by the Standard Model.

The material in this slide and in the following two slides has been adapted from material from www.fnal.gov (Fermilab).

12

The Standard Model

- The biggest success of the Standard Model is the unification of the electromagnetic and the weak forces into the so-called electroweak force.
- Many physicists think it is possible to eventually describe all forces with a Grand Unified Theory or a so-called Theory of Everything (ToE).
- M-theory (a generalization of superstring theory) is the current embodiment of the ToE.

13

Philosophical Implications of a ToE

- Reductionist point-of-view: everything from the big bang to human emotions can be obtained from the ToE given enough computational power.
- Another point of view: new types of fundamental laws arise in complex systems that cannot be derived from the ToE.
- Practical point of view: any ToE could never be successfully applied to complex systems, and so it is irrelevant whether or not the laws of complex systems can be derived from the ToE.

14

Religion/Faith/Metaphysics v. Science

- Science attempts to explain the processes by which the universe functions (i.e. the “how”).
- Religion attempts to explain why the universe exists and to impart meaning to its existence (i.e., the “why”).

15

Religion/Faith/Metaphysics v. Science

- Science is absolutely neutral on the issue of whether “God” exists or not.
- Consider the following: people of many different faiths or no faith at all can work together to design complex systems such as a packaged integrated circuit.

- Millions of devoutly religious people accept scientific theories as valid explanations for natural processes.
- Those who do not should imagine what life was like for the average human before modern scientific advances in medicine, engineering, etc.

16

Engineering

- With the exception of nuclear engineering, the engineering disciplines (e.g., mechanical, aerospace, civil, etc.) deal with phenomena that involve the forces of gravity and electromagnetism.
- Much of electrical engineering involves understanding phenomena that result from the force of electromagnetism.

17

Hierarchy of Physics Theories Involved in the Study of Electrical Engineering

- Quantum electrodynamics
- Quantum mechanics
- Schrödinger equation

- Classical electromagnetics
- Electrostatics
- Magnetostatics
- Circuit theory
- Geometric optics

- Quantum mechanics

18

Information Theory Electrical Engineering

- Originally developed by Claude Shannon of Bell Labs in the 1940s.
- Information is defined as a symbol that is uncertain at the receiver.
- The fundamental quantity in information theory is channel capacity – the maximum rate that information can be exchanged between a transmitter and a receiver.

The material in this slide and the next has been adapted from material from www.lucent.com/minds/infotheory.

19

Information Theory Electrical Engineering

- Defines relationships between elements of a communications system. For example,
- Power at the signal source
- Bandwidth of the system
- Noise
- Interference

- Mathematically describes the principals of data compression.

20

Exercise: What is Information? Electrical Engineering

- Message with redunancy:
- “Many students are likely to fail that exam.”

- Message coded with less redundancy:
- “Mny stdnts are lkly to fail tht exm.”

21

Digital Logic Electrical Engineering

- Digital logic signals are really analog signals, and digital circuits are ultimately designed using circuit theory.
- However, in many situations the function of a digital circuit is more easily synthesized using the principles of digital logic.

22

Digital Logic Electrical Engineering

- Based on logic gates, truth tables, and combinational and sequential logic circuit design
- Uses Boolean algebra and Karnaugh maps to develop minimized logic circuits.
- Not explicitly addressed in this class.

23

EE Subdisciplines Electrical Engineering

- Power Systems
- Electromagnetics
- Solid State
- Communication/Signal Processing
- Controls
- Digital Design

24

Power Systems Electrical Engineering

- Generation of electrical energy
- Storage of electrical energy
- Distribution of electrical energy
- Rotating machinery-generators, motors

25

Electromagnetics Electrical Engineering

- Propagation of electromagnetic energy
- Antennas
- Very high frequency signals
- Fiber optics

26

Solid State Electrical Engineering

- Devices
- Transistors
- Diodes (LED’s, Laser diodes)
- Photodetectors

- Miniaturization of electrical devices
- Integration of many devices on a single chip

27

Communications/Signal Proc. Electrical Engineering

- Transmission of information electrically and optically
- Modification of signals
- enhancement
- compression
- noise reduction
- filtering

28

Controls Electrical Engineering

- Changing system inputs to obtain desired outputs
- Feedback
- Stability

29

Digital Design Electrical Engineering

- Digital (ones and zeros) signals and hardware
- Computer architectures
- Embedded computer systems
- Microprocessors
- Microcontrollers
- DSP chips
- Programmable logic devices (PLDs)

30

Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

Simulsat

Parabolic

Multiple horn feeds

Horn feed

ATCi Corporate Headquarters450 North McKemyChandler, AZ 85226 USA

31

Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

Incoming plane wave is focused by reflector at location of horn feed.

Geometric Optics

32

Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

Feed horn is designed so that it will illuminate the reflector in such a way as to maximize the aperture efficiency.

Maxwell’s

equations

33

Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

Feed horn needs to be able to receive orthogonal linear polarizations (V-pol and H-pol) and maintain adequate isolation between the two channels.

V-pol

H-pol

34

Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

A planar orthomode transducer (OMT) is used to achieve good isolation between orthogonal linear polarizations.

Maxwell’s Equations (“Full-Wave Solution”)

35

Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

To LNB

Feed waveguide (WR 229)

Maxwell’s

equations

Horn

Stripline circuit with OMT, ratrace and WR229 transitions

36

Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

Layout of the stripline trace layer

Single-ended probe

WR229

Transitions

Circuit Theory

Differential-pair probes

Ratrace hybrid

50 ohm transmission line

Vias

37

Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

The two linear polarizations each are fed to a LNB (low noise block).

LNB

LNB

38

Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

LNB:

Mixer

BPF

LNA

IF Output:

950-1750 MHz

(To Receiver)

Circuit Theory, Behavioral Models, Information Theory

Local Oscillator

39

Overall System Performance Electrical Engineering

- Carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)
- Bit error rate (BER)

Maxwell’s Equations, Circuit Theory, Behavioral Models, Information Theory

40

Why Do We Need Coordinate Systems? Electrical Engineering

- The laws of electrophysics (like the laws of physics in general) are independent of a particular coordinate system.
- However, application of these laws to obtain the solution of a particular problem imposes the need to use a suitable coordinate system.
- It is the shape of the boundary of the problem that determines the most suitable coordinate system to use in its solution.

42

Orthogonal Right-Handed Coordinate Systems Electrical Engineering

- A coordinate system defines a set of three reference directions at each and every point in space.
- The origin of the coordinate system is the reference point relative to which we locate every other point in space.
- A position vector defines the position of a point in space relative to the origin.
- These three reference directions are referred to as coordinate directions, and are usually taken to be mutually perpendicular (orthogonal).

43

Orthogonal Electrical EngineeringRight-Handed Coordinate Systems

- Unit vectors along the coordinate directions are referred to as base vectors.
- In any of the orthogonal coordinate systems, an arbitrary vector can be expressed in terms of a superposition of the three base vectors.
- Consider base vectors such that

Such a coordinate system is called right-handed.

44

Orthogonal Right-Handed Coordinate Systems Electrical Engineering

- Note that the base vectors can, in general, point in different directions at different points in space.
- Obviously, if they are to serve as references, then their directions must be known a priori for each and every point in space.

45

Coordinate Systems Used in This Class Electrical Engineering

- In this class, we shall solve problems using three orthogonal right-handed coordinate systems:
- Cartesian
- cylindrical
- spherical

46

Cartesian Coordinates Electrical Engineering

- The point P(x1,y1,z1) is located as the intersection of three mutually perpendicular planes: x=x1, y=y1, z=z1.
- The base vectors are
- The base vectors satisfy the following relations:

47

Cylindrical Coordinates Electrical Engineering

- The point P(r1,f1,z1) is located as the intersection of three mutually perpendicular surfaces: r=r1 (a circular cylinder), f=f1 (a half-plane containing the z-axis), z=z1 (a plane).
- The base vectors are

48

Cylindrical Coordinates (Cont’d) Electrical Engineering

- The base vectors satisfy the following relations:

50

Spherical Coordinates Electrical Engineering

- The point P(r1,q1,f1) is located as the intersection of three mutually perpendicular surfaces: r = r1 (a sphere), q =q1 (a cone), and f=f1 (a half-plane containing the z-axis).
- The base vectors are

51

Spherical Coordinates (Cont’d) Electrical Engineering

- The base vectors satisfy the following relations:

53

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