Eee 498 598 overview of electrical engineering
Download
1 / 55

EEE 498 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 199 Views
  • Uploaded on

EEE 498/598 Overview of Electrical Engineering. Lecture 1: Introduction to Electrical Engineering. Lecture 1 Objectives. To provide an overview of packaging. To review the electrical functions of a package. To understand the foundations of electrical engineering.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'EEE 498' - clare


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Eee 498 598 overview of electrical engineering l.jpg

EEE 498/598Overview of Electrical Engineering

Lecture 1:

Introduction to Electrical Engineering

1


Lecture 1 objectives l.jpg
Lecture 1 Objectives

  • To provide an overview of packaging.

  • To review the electrical functions of a package.

  • To understand the foundations of electrical engineering.

  • To become aware of the topics that will be covered in this class.

  • To define the coordinate systems that will be used in this class.

2


Overview of packaging l.jpg
Overview of Packaging

~ .040”

~ .012“

Package

Silicon Die

Motherboard

Courtesy of Intel Corp.

3


Overview of packaging4 l.jpg

Die

C4 Balls

Microvias

FCBGA

PTH Vias

BGA Balls

Interposer

Vias

Interposer

Pins

Overview of Packaging

IHS

FCBGA

Interposer

Caps

Interposer

LSC

Pins

Interposer

FCBGA

Die

DSC

Courtesy of Intel Corp.

4


Overview of packaging5 l.jpg
Overview of Packaging

  • “Packaging engineers today must solve complex, coupled problems that require fundamental understanding of electrical, thermal, mechanical, material science, and manufacturing principles.”

    • Dr. Nasser Grayeli, Intel Corporation

  • This course focuses on preparing students to understand the electrical principles.

  • 5


    Electrical functions of the package l.jpg
    Electrical Functions of the Package

    • Power Delivery

      • Supply a clean power and reference voltage to active devices on the die.

    • Signal Input/Output

      • Transmit signals from the die to the motherboard faithfully and in minimum time.

    • EMI/EMC

      • Minimize radiation of electromagnetic energy into the environment, and the impact of ambient electromagnetic energy on circuit performance.

    6


    Foundations of electrical engineering l.jpg
    Foundations of Electrical Engineering

    • Electrophysics.

    • Information (Communications) Theory.

    • Digital Logic.

    80 % of this course

    20 % of this course

    Not covered in detail in this class

    7


    Foundations of electrical engineering8 l.jpg
    Foundations of Electrical Engineering

    • Electrophysics:

      • Fundamental theories of physics and important special cases.

      • Phenomenological/behavioral models for situations where the rigorous physical theories are too difficult to apply.

    8


    Hypothesis model and theory l.jpg
    Hypothesis, Model, and Theory

    • A hypothesis is an idea or suggestion that has been put forward to explain a set of observations. It may be expressed in terms of a mathematical model. The model makes a number of predictions that can be tested in experiments. After many tests have been made, if the model can be refined to correctly describe the outcome of all experiments, it begins to have a greater status than a mere suggestion.

    • A theory is a well-tested and well-established understanding of an underlying mechanism or process.

    The material in this slide has been adapted from material at http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/theory/modeltheory.html.

    9


    Hypothesis model and theory10 l.jpg
    Hypothesis, Model, and Theory

    • Maxwell’s equations are ‘just a theory’ and yet my cell phone works!

    • At one time, a theory would have been referred to as a ‘law’.

      • Newton’s laws

      • Boyle’s law

    • But remember no theory is a complete description of all reality; all theories are incomplete.

    • Electrical engineers make use of a number of theories – some of which are special cases of others.

    10


    Four fundamental forces of physics l.jpg
    Four Fundamental Forces of Physics

    • Gravitational Force

      • Associated particle is graviton (hypothesized)

      • Always attractive

      • Varies inversely as the square of the distance

    • Electromagnetic Force

      • Associated particle is photon

      • 1042 times stronger than gravity

      • Force can be attractive or repulsive

      • Varies inversely as the square of the distance

    • Strong Interaction

      • Associated particle is gluon

      • About 100X stronger than electromagnetic force but only acts over distances the size of an atomic nucleus

      • Responsible for holding the protons and neutrons together

    • Weak Interaction

      • Associated particles are the weak gauge bosons (Z and W particles)

      • Acts only over distances the size of an atomic nucleus

      • Responsible for certain types of radioactive decay

    11


    The standard model l.jpg
    The Standard Model

    • Physicists call the theoretical framework that describes the interactions between elementary building blocks (quarks and leptons) and the force carriers (bosons) the Standard Model.

    • Most of the standard model is a theory; some of it is still hypothesis.

    • Physicists use the Standard Model to explain and calculate a vast variety of particle interactions and quantum phenomena. High-precision experiments have repeatedly verified subtle effects predicted by the Standard Model.

    The material in this slide and in the following two slides has been adapted from material from www.fnal.gov (Fermilab).

    12


    The standard model13 l.jpg
    The Standard Model

    • The biggest success of the Standard Model is the unification of the electromagnetic and the weak forces into the so-called electroweak force.

    • Many physicists think it is possible to eventually describe all forces with a Grand Unified Theory or a so-called Theory of Everything (ToE).

      • M-theory (a generalization of superstring theory) is the current embodiment of the ToE.

    13


    Philosophical implications of a toe l.jpg
    Philosophical Implications of a ToE

    • Reductionist point-of-view: everything from the big bang to human emotions can be obtained from the ToE given enough computational power.

    • Another point of view: new types of fundamental laws arise in complex systems that cannot be derived from the ToE.

    • Practical point of view: any ToE could never be successfully applied to complex systems, and so it is irrelevant whether or not the laws of complex systems can be derived from the ToE.

    14


    Religion faith metaphysics v science l.jpg
    Religion/Faith/Metaphysics v. Science

    • Science attempts to explain the processes by which the universe functions (i.e. the “how”).

    • Religion attempts to explain why the universe exists and to impart meaning to its existence (i.e., the “why”).

    15


    Religion faith metaphysics v science16 l.jpg
    Religion/Faith/Metaphysics v. Science

    • Science is absolutely neutral on the issue of whether “God” exists or not.

      • Consider the following: people of many different faiths or no faith at all can work together to design complex systems such as a packaged integrated circuit.

    • Millions of devoutly religious people accept scientific theories as valid explanations for natural processes.

    • Those who do not should imagine what life was like for the average human before modern scientific advances in medicine, engineering, etc.

    16


    Engineering l.jpg
    Engineering

    • With the exception of nuclear engineering, the engineering disciplines (e.g., mechanical, aerospace, civil, etc.) deal with phenomena that involve the forces of gravity and electromagnetism.

    • Much of electrical engineering involves understanding phenomena that result from the force of electromagnetism.

    17


    Hierarchy of physics theories involved in the study of electrical engineering l.jpg
    Hierarchy of Physics Theories Involved in the Study of Electrical Engineering

    • Quantum electrodynamics

      • Quantum mechanics

        • Schrödinger equation

      • Classical electromagnetics

        • Electrostatics

        • Magnetostatics

        • Circuit theory

        • Geometric optics

    18


    Information theory l.jpg
    Information Theory Electrical Engineering

    • Originally developed by Claude Shannon of Bell Labs in the 1940s.

    • Information is defined as a symbol that is uncertain at the receiver.

    • The fundamental quantity in information theory is channel capacity – the maximum rate that information can be exchanged between a transmitter and a receiver.

    The material in this slide and the next has been adapted from material from www.lucent.com/minds/infotheory.

    19


    Information theory20 l.jpg
    Information Theory Electrical Engineering

    • Defines relationships between elements of a communications system. For example,

      • Power at the signal source

      • Bandwidth of the system

      • Noise

      • Interference

    • Mathematically describes the principals of data compression.

    20


    Exercise what is information l.jpg
    Exercise: What is Information? Electrical Engineering

    • Message with redunancy:

      • “Many students are likely to fail that exam.”

    • Message coded with less redundancy:

      • “Mny stdnts are lkly to fail tht exm.”

    21


    Digital logic l.jpg
    Digital Logic Electrical Engineering

    • Digital logic signals are really analog signals, and digital circuits are ultimately designed using circuit theory.

    • However, in many situations the function of a digital circuit is more easily synthesized using the principles of digital logic.

    22


    Digital logic23 l.jpg
    Digital Logic Electrical Engineering

    • Based on logic gates, truth tables, and combinational and sequential logic circuit design

    • Uses Boolean algebra and Karnaugh maps to develop minimized logic circuits.

    • Not explicitly addressed in this class.

    23


    Ee subdisciplines l.jpg
    EE Subdisciplines Electrical Engineering

    • Power Systems

    • Electromagnetics

    • Solid State

    • Communication/Signal Processing

    • Controls

    • Digital Design

    24


    Power systems l.jpg
    Power Systems Electrical Engineering

    • Generation of electrical energy

    • Storage of electrical energy

    • Distribution of electrical energy

    • Rotating machinery-generators, motors

    25


    Electromagnetics l.jpg
    Electromagnetics Electrical Engineering

    • Propagation of electromagnetic energy

    • Antennas

    • Very high frequency signals

    • Fiber optics

    26


    Solid state l.jpg
    Solid State Electrical Engineering

    • Devices

      • Transistors

      • Diodes (LED’s, Laser diodes)

      • Photodetectors

    • Miniaturization of electrical devices

    • Integration of many devices on a single chip

    27


    Communications signal proc l.jpg
    Communications/Signal Proc. Electrical Engineering

    • Transmission of information electrically and optically

    • Modification of signals

      • enhancement

      • compression

      • noise reduction

      • filtering

    28


    Controls l.jpg
    Controls Electrical Engineering

    • Changing system inputs to obtain desired outputs

    • Feedback

    • Stability

    29


    Digital design l.jpg
    Digital Design Electrical Engineering

    • Digital (ones and zeros) signals and hardware

    • Computer architectures

    • Embedded computer systems

      • Microprocessors

      • Microcontrollers

      • DSP chips

      • Programmable logic devices (PLDs)

    30


    Case study c ku band earthstation antennas l.jpg
    Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

    Simulsat

    Parabolic

    Multiple horn feeds

    Horn feed

    ATCi Corporate Headquarters450 North McKemyChandler, AZ 85226 USA

    31


    Case study c ku band earthstation antennas32 l.jpg
    Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

    Incoming plane wave is focused by reflector at location of horn feed.

    Geometric Optics

    32


    Case study c ku band earthstation antennas33 l.jpg
    Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

    Feed horn is designed so that it will illuminate the reflector in such a way as to maximize the aperture efficiency.

    Maxwell’s

    equations

    33


    Case study c ku band earthstation antennas34 l.jpg
    Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

    Feed horn needs to be able to receive orthogonal linear polarizations (V-pol and H-pol) and maintain adequate isolation between the two channels.

    V-pol

    H-pol

    34


    Case study c ku band earthstation antennas35 l.jpg
    Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

    A planar orthomode transducer (OMT) is used to achieve good isolation between orthogonal linear polarizations.

    Maxwell’s Equations (“Full-Wave Solution”)

    35


    Case study c ku band earthstation antennas36 l.jpg
    Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

    To LNB

    Feed waveguide (WR 229)

    Maxwell’s

    equations

    Horn

    Stripline circuit with OMT, ratrace and WR229 transitions

    36


    Case study c ku band earthstation antennas37 l.jpg
    Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

    Layout of the stripline trace layer

    Single-ended probe

    WR229

    Transitions

    Circuit Theory

    Differential-pair probes

    Ratrace hybrid

    50 ohm transmission line

    Vias

    37


    Case study c ku band earthstation antennas38 l.jpg
    Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

    The two linear polarizations each are fed to a LNB (low noise block).

    LNB

    LNB

    38


    Case study c ku band earthstation antennas39 l.jpg
    Case Study: C/Ku Band Earthstation Antennas Electrical Engineering

    LNB:

    Mixer

    BPF

    LNA

    IF Output:

    950-1750 MHz

    (To Receiver)

    Circuit Theory, Behavioral Models, Information Theory

    Local Oscillator

    39


    Overall system performance l.jpg
    Overall System Performance Electrical Engineering

    • Carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)

    • Bit error rate (BER)

    Maxwell’s Equations, Circuit Theory, Behavioral Models, Information Theory

    40


    Si international system of units l.jpg
    SI (International System of) Units Electrical Engineering

    Fundamental SI Units

    41


    Why do we need coordinate systems l.jpg
    Why Do We Need Coordinate Systems? Electrical Engineering

    • The laws of electrophysics (like the laws of physics in general) are independent of a particular coordinate system.

    • However, application of these laws to obtain the solution of a particular problem imposes the need to use a suitable coordinate system.

    • It is the shape of the boundary of the problem that determines the most suitable coordinate system to use in its solution.

    42


    Orthogonal right handed coordinate systems l.jpg
    Orthogonal Right-Handed Coordinate Systems Electrical Engineering

    • A coordinate system defines a set of three reference directions at each and every point in space.

    • The origin of the coordinate system is the reference point relative to which we locate every other point in space.

    • A position vector defines the position of a point in space relative to the origin.

    • These three reference directions are referred to as coordinate directions, and are usually taken to be mutually perpendicular (orthogonal).

    43


    Orthogonal right handed coordinate systems44 l.jpg
    Orthogonal Electrical EngineeringRight-Handed Coordinate Systems

    • Unit vectors along the coordinate directions are referred to as base vectors.

    • In any of the orthogonal coordinate systems, an arbitrary vector can be expressed in terms of a superposition of the three base vectors.

    • Consider base vectors such that

    Such a coordinate system is called right-handed.

    44


    Orthogonal right handed coordinate systems45 l.jpg
    Orthogonal Right-Handed Coordinate Systems Electrical Engineering

    • Note that the base vectors can, in general, point in different directions at different points in space.

    • Obviously, if they are to serve as references, then their directions must be known a priori for each and every point in space.

    45


    Coordinate systems used in this class l.jpg
    Coordinate Systems Used in This Class Electrical Engineering

    • In this class, we shall solve problems using three orthogonal right-handed coordinate systems:

      • Cartesian

      • cylindrical

      • spherical

    46


    Cartesian coordinates l.jpg
    Cartesian Coordinates Electrical Engineering

    • The point P(x1,y1,z1) is located as the intersection of three mutually perpendicular planes: x=x1, y=y1, z=z1.

    • The base vectors are

    • The base vectors satisfy the following relations:

    47


    Cylindrical coordinates l.jpg
    Cylindrical Coordinates Electrical Engineering

    • The point P(r1,f1,z1) is located as the intersection of three mutually perpendicular surfaces: r=r1 (a circular cylinder), f=f1 (a half-plane containing the z-axis), z=z1 (a plane).

    • The base vectors are

    48


    Cylindrical coordinates cont d l.jpg

    z Electrical Engineering

    z1

    P(r1,f1,z1)

    y

    r1

    f1

    x

    Cylindrical Coordinates (Cont’d)

    49


    Cylindrical coordinates cont d50 l.jpg
    Cylindrical Coordinates (Cont’d) Electrical Engineering

    • The base vectors satisfy the following relations:

    50


    Spherical coordinates l.jpg
    Spherical Coordinates Electrical Engineering

    • The point P(r1,q1,f1) is located as the intersection of three mutually perpendicular surfaces: r = r1 (a sphere), q =q1 (a cone), and f=f1 (a half-plane containing the z-axis).

    • The base vectors are

    51


    Spherical coordinates cont d l.jpg

    z Electrical Engineering

    P(r1,q1,f1)

    q1

    r1

    y

    f1

    x

    Spherical Coordinates (Cont’d)

    52


    Spherical coordinates cont d53 l.jpg
    Spherical Coordinates (Cont’d) Electrical Engineering

    • The base vectors satisfy the following relations:

    53


    Spherical coordinates cont d54 l.jpg

    z Electrical Engineering

    q

    r

    y

    f

    x

    Spherical Coordinates (Cont’d)

    54


    Position vector l.jpg
    Position Vector Electrical Engineering

    • Position vector:

    • Arbitrary function of position:

    55


    ad