Cellular metabolism and reproduction mitosis and meiosis
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Chapter 4. Cellular Metabolism and Reproduction: Mitosis and Meiosis. Introduction to Cellular Metabolism. Metabolism: total cellular chemical changes Anabolism: process of building up Catabolism: process of breaking down Calorie: measure of energy contained in food

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Cellular Metabolism and Reproduction: Mitosis and Meiosis

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Cellular metabolism and reproduction mitosis and meiosis

Chapter 4

Cellular Metabolism and Reproduction: Mitosis and Meiosis


Introduction to cellular metabolism

Introduction to Cellular Metabolism

  • Metabolism: total cellular chemical changes

    • Anabolism: process of building up

    • Catabolism: process of breaking down

  • Calorie: measure of energy contained in food

  • ATP: energy source available to the cell


Cellular metabolism or biochemical respiration

Cellular Metabolism or Biochemical Respiration


Glycolysis

Glycolysis

  • Breakdown of glucose

  • Anaerobic or aerobic process

  • Final outcome

    • 2 pyruvic acid molecules, 2 ATP molecules (anaerobic), 8 ATP molecules (aerobic)


The krebs citric acid cycle

The Krebs Citric Acid Cycle

  • Pyruvic Acid > Acetic Acid > Acetyl-CoA

  • Acetyl-CoA enters Krebs cycle in mitochondria

  • Final outcome

    • 6 CO2, 8 NADH2, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP (GTP)


The electron transport transfer system

The Electron Transport (Transfer) System

  • Series of reduction/oxidation reactions

  • Requires O2

  • Electron carriers

  • Number of ATP molecules dependent on electron carrier

  • Water is a waste product


Summary of atp production

Summary of ATP Production

  • During glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and electron transport

  • Glycolysis: 8 ATP (aerobic)

  • Krebs cycle and electron transport

    • 28 ATP + 2 GTP or

    • 30 ATP

  • 1 glucose molecule yields 38 ATP


Anaerobic respiration

Anaerobic Respiration


Fermentation

Fermentation

  • Yeast breaks down glucose anaerobically

  • Pyruvic acid broken down by decarboxylase

    • Forms carbon dioxide and acetaldehyde

  • Final products: 2 ATP, CO2, ethyl alcohol


Anaerobic production of atp by muscles

Anaerobic Production of ATP by Muscles

  • Pyruvic acid converted to lactic acid

    • Accumulation of lactic acid causes fatigue in muscles

    • When oxygen supplied, lactic acid turns back into pyruvic acid

  • 2 ATP produced per glucose molecule


Production of atp from general food compounds

Production of ATP from General Food Compounds


Production of atp from general food compounds cont d

Production of ATP from General Food Compounds (cont’d.)

  • Carbohydrates fit into cellular furnace at same level as glucose

    • Can be stored in liver or as fat

  • Fats digested into fatty acids and glycerol

    • Glycerol enters at PGA stage of glycolysis

    • Fatty acids enter Krebs citric acid cycle


Production of atp from general food compounds cont d1

Production of ATP from General Food Compounds (cont’d.)

  • Proteins digested into amino acids

    • Enter into Krebs cycle at different stages

      • Dependent on chemical structure


Introduction to cellular reproduction

Introduction to Cellular Reproduction


Introduction to cellular reproduction cont d

Introduction to Cellular Reproduction (cont’d.)

  • Process of cell duplication

  • Mitosis: duplication of genetic material

  • Cytokinesis: duplication of organelles

  • Meiosis: reduction division only in gonads


The structure of the dna molecule

The Structure of the DNA Molecule


The history of the discovery of dna

The History of the Discovery of DNA

  • Friedrich Miescher, 1869: first discovery

  • P.A. Levine, 1920s: composition

  • Rosalind Franklin: helical structure

  • Watson and Crick: three-dimensional structure


The anatomy of the dna molecule

The Anatomy of the DNA Molecule

  • Double helical chain of nucleotides

    • Phosphate group

    • Five-carbon sugars (deoxyribose)

    • Nitrogen-containing base

      • Pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine)

      • Purines (adenine and guanine)

    • Pyrimidines pair with purines

    • Chains held together by hydrogen bonds


The anatomy of the dna molecule cont d

The Anatomy of the DNA Molecule (cont’d.)

  • Gene: sequence of base pairs that codes for polypeptide or protein

  • Human Genome Project

    • 3 billion base pairs that code for 30,000 genes

  • Duplication of DNA molecule

    • Helicase separates at hydrogen bonds

    • DNA polymerase adds new nucleotides


The cell cycle

The Cell Cycle


Introduction

Introduction

  • All reproduction begins at cellular level

  • Interphase

    • Previously called resting stage

  • Mitosis

  • Cytokinesis


Interphase

Interphase

  • Time between divisions

    • G1: Primary growth phase

    • S: DNA duplication

    • G2: Centrioles complete duplication, mitochondria replicate, chromosomes condense and coil


Mitosis

Mitosis

  • Prophase

    • Chromosomes become visible as chromatids joined by centromere

    • Two kinetochores at the centromere

    • Centrioles move to opposite poles

    • Nuclear membrane breaks down

    • Microtubules attach kinetochores to spindle


Mitosis cont d

Mitosis (cont’d.)

  • Metaphase

    • Chromatids align at equator of cell

    • Centromere divides


Mitosis cont d1

Mitosis (cont’d.)

  • Anaphase

    • Divided centromere pulls chromatids to opposite pole

    • Cytokinesis begins


Mitosis cont d2

Mitosis (cont’d.)

  • Telophase

    • Chromosomes uncoil and decondense

    • Spindle apparatus breaks down

    • New nuclear membrane forms

    • Cytokinesis nearly complete


Animation mitosis

Animation – Mitosis

  • Stop and watch a 3-D presentation of mitosis.

Click Here to Play Mitosis Animation


Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis

  • Animal cells

    • Cleavage furrow forms

    • Cell is pinched into daughter cells

  • Plant cells

    • Cell plate forms at equator

    • Cell plate becomes new cell wall


Meiosis a reduction division

Meiosis: A Reduction Division


Introduction1

Introduction

  • Occurs only in the gonads

  • Reduces genetic material from diploid to haploid

  • Two divisions resulting in four cells


Stages of meiosis

Stages of Meiosis

  • Prophase I: homologous chromosomes pair and cross over

  • Metaphase I: chromosomes align along equator

  • Anaphase I: centromeres pulled to poles

    • One member to each pole

  • Telophase I: one of each pair is at each pole


Stages of meiosis cont d

Stages of Meiosis (cont’d.)

  • Prophase II: spindle forms; centrioles move to poles

  • Metaphase II: chromosomes line up at equator

  • Anaphase II: centromeres divide

  • Telophase II: chromatids at each pole; new nuclear membrane forms


Animation meiosis

Animation – Meiosis

  • Now that you have learned about the stages of meiosis, watch the meiosis animation for a visual of this process.

Click Here to Play Meiosis Animation


Gametogenesis the formation of the sex cells

Gametogenesis: The Formation of the Sex Cells


Gametogenesis the formation of the sex cells cont d

Gametogenesis: The Formation of the Sex Cells (cont’d.)

  • Spermatogenesis

    • Four cells produced

    • Develop into sperm

  • Oogenesis

    • Four cells produced

    • Only one becomes functional egg


Animation cancer metastasizing

Animation – Cancer Metastasizing

  • Refer to the Common Disease, Disorder or Condition box on Cancer in your textbook and read about the growth of cancer cells. Now watch the 3-D Cancer Metastasizing animation.

Click Here to Play Cancer Metastasizing Animation


Summary

Summary

  • Discussed how glucose is converted into ATP in the presence of oxygen

  • Discussed how glucose is converted into ATP in the absence of oxygen

  • Described how fats and proteins are converted into ATP

  • Discussed the cell cycle


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