Cellular metabolism and reproduction mitosis and meiosis
Download
1 / 37

Cellular Metabolism and Reproduction: Mitosis and Meiosis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 205 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 4. Cellular Metabolism and Reproduction: Mitosis and Meiosis. Introduction to Cellular Metabolism. Metabolism: total cellular chemical changes Anabolism: process of building up Catabolism: process of breaking down Calorie: measure of energy contained in food

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Cellular Metabolism and Reproduction: Mitosis and Meiosis' - clare-davis


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Cellular metabolism and reproduction mitosis and meiosis

Chapter 4

Cellular Metabolism and Reproduction: Mitosis and Meiosis


Introduction to cellular metabolism
Introduction to Cellular Metabolism

  • Metabolism: total cellular chemical changes

    • Anabolism: process of building up

    • Catabolism: process of breaking down

  • Calorie: measure of energy contained in food

  • ATP: energy source available to the cell



Glycolysis
Glycolysis

  • Breakdown of glucose

  • Anaerobic or aerobic process

  • Final outcome

    • 2 pyruvic acid molecules, 2 ATP molecules (anaerobic), 8 ATP molecules (aerobic)


The krebs citric acid cycle
The Krebs Citric Acid Cycle

  • Pyruvic Acid > Acetic Acid > Acetyl-CoA

  • Acetyl-CoA enters Krebs cycle in mitochondria

  • Final outcome

    • 6 CO2, 8 NADH2, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP (GTP)


The electron transport transfer system
The Electron Transport (Transfer) System

  • Series of reduction/oxidation reactions

  • Requires O2

  • Electron carriers

  • Number of ATP molecules dependent on electron carrier

  • Water is a waste product


Summary of atp production
Summary of ATP Production

  • During glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and electron transport

  • Glycolysis: 8 ATP (aerobic)

  • Krebs cycle and electron transport

    • 28 ATP + 2 GTP or

    • 30 ATP

  • 1 glucose molecule yields 38 ATP



Fermentation
Fermentation

  • Yeast breaks down glucose anaerobically

  • Pyruvic acid broken down by decarboxylase

    • Forms carbon dioxide and acetaldehyde

  • Final products: 2 ATP, CO2, ethyl alcohol


Anaerobic production of atp by muscles
Anaerobic Production of ATP by Muscles

  • Pyruvic acid converted to lactic acid

    • Accumulation of lactic acid causes fatigue in muscles

    • When oxygen supplied, lactic acid turns back into pyruvic acid

  • 2 ATP produced per glucose molecule



Production of atp from general food compounds cont d
Production of ATP from General Food Compounds (cont’d.)

  • Carbohydrates fit into cellular furnace at same level as glucose

    • Can be stored in liver or as fat

  • Fats digested into fatty acids and glycerol

    • Glycerol enters at PGA stage of glycolysis

    • Fatty acids enter Krebs citric acid cycle


Production of atp from general food compounds cont d1
Production of ATP from General Food Compounds (cont’d.)

  • Proteins digested into amino acids

    • Enter into Krebs cycle at different stages

      • Dependent on chemical structure



Introduction to cellular reproduction cont d
Introduction to Cellular Reproduction (cont’d.)

  • Process of cell duplication

  • Mitosis: duplication of genetic material

  • Cytokinesis: duplication of organelles

  • Meiosis: reduction division only in gonads



The history of the discovery of dna
The History of the Discovery of DNA

  • Friedrich Miescher, 1869: first discovery

  • P.A. Levine, 1920s: composition

  • Rosalind Franklin: helical structure

  • Watson and Crick: three-dimensional structure


The anatomy of the dna molecule
The Anatomy of the DNA Molecule

  • Double helical chain of nucleotides

    • Phosphate group

    • Five-carbon sugars (deoxyribose)

    • Nitrogen-containing base

      • Pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine)

      • Purines (adenine and guanine)

    • Pyrimidines pair with purines

    • Chains held together by hydrogen bonds


The anatomy of the dna molecule cont d
The Anatomy of the DNA Molecule (cont’d.)

  • Gene: sequence of base pairs that codes for polypeptide or protein

  • Human Genome Project

    • 3 billion base pairs that code for 30,000 genes

  • Duplication of DNA molecule

    • Helicase separates at hydrogen bonds

    • DNA polymerase adds new nucleotides



Introduction
Introduction

  • All reproduction begins at cellular level

  • Interphase

    • Previously called resting stage

  • Mitosis

  • Cytokinesis


Interphase
Interphase

  • Time between divisions

    • G1: Primary growth phase

    • S: DNA duplication

    • G2: Centrioles complete duplication, mitochondria replicate, chromosomes condense and coil


Mitosis
Mitosis

  • Prophase

    • Chromosomes become visible as chromatids joined by centromere

    • Two kinetochores at the centromere

    • Centrioles move to opposite poles

    • Nuclear membrane breaks down

    • Microtubules attach kinetochores to spindle


Mitosis cont d
Mitosis (cont’d.)

  • Metaphase

    • Chromatids align at equator of cell

    • Centromere divides


Mitosis cont d1
Mitosis (cont’d.)

  • Anaphase

    • Divided centromere pulls chromatids to opposite pole

    • Cytokinesis begins


Mitosis cont d2
Mitosis (cont’d.)

  • Telophase

    • Chromosomes uncoil and decondense

    • Spindle apparatus breaks down

    • New nuclear membrane forms

    • Cytokinesis nearly complete


Animation mitosis
Animation – Mitosis

  • Stop and watch a 3-D presentation of mitosis.

Click Here to Play Mitosis Animation


Cytokinesis
Cytokinesis

  • Animal cells

    • Cleavage furrow forms

    • Cell is pinched into daughter cells

  • Plant cells

    • Cell plate forms at equator

    • Cell plate becomes new cell wall



Introduction1
Introduction

  • Occurs only in the gonads

  • Reduces genetic material from diploid to haploid

  • Two divisions resulting in four cells


Stages of meiosis
Stages of Meiosis

  • Prophase I: homologous chromosomes pair and cross over

  • Metaphase I: chromosomes align along equator

  • Anaphase I: centromeres pulled to poles

    • One member to each pole

  • Telophase I: one of each pair is at each pole


Stages of meiosis cont d
Stages of Meiosis (cont’d.)

  • Prophase II: spindle forms; centrioles move to poles

  • Metaphase II: chromosomes line up at equator

  • Anaphase II: centromeres divide

  • Telophase II: chromatids at each pole; new nuclear membrane forms


Animation meiosis
Animation – Meiosis

  • Now that you have learned about the stages of meiosis, watch the meiosis animation for a visual of this process.

Click Here to Play Meiosis Animation



Gametogenesis the formation of the sex cells cont d
Gametogenesis: The Formation of the Sex Cells (cont’d.)

  • Spermatogenesis

    • Four cells produced

    • Develop into sperm

  • Oogenesis

    • Four cells produced

    • Only one becomes functional egg


Animation cancer metastasizing
Animation – Cancer Metastasizing

  • Refer to the Common Disease, Disorder or Condition box on Cancer in your textbook and read about the growth of cancer cells. Now watch the 3-D Cancer Metastasizing animation.

Click Here to Play Cancer Metastasizing Animation


Summary
Summary

  • Discussed how glucose is converted into ATP in the presence of oxygen

  • Discussed how glucose is converted into ATP in the absence of oxygen

  • Described how fats and proteins are converted into ATP

  • Discussed the cell cycle


ad