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STHE Overpressure Protection. Colin Deddis, Senior Process Engineer, EPT 22 March 2010. STHE Overpressure Protection. Changes in guidance & practice since 2000 Response times of relief devices Dynamic analysis of STHE overpressure and relief Defining the problem with implementation

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Sthe overpressure protection

STHE Overpressure Protection

Colin Deddis, Senior Process Engineer, EPT

22 March 2010


Sthe overpressure protection1

STHE Overpressure Protection

  • Changes in guidance & practice since 2000

  • Response times of relief devices

  • Dynamic analysis of STHE overpressure and relief

  • Defining the problem with implementation

  • Incident examples

  • Design & operational issues

  • JIP Proposal


Changes in guidance api521 bs en iso 23251

Changes in Guidance – API521/BS EN ISO 23251

  • Two-thirds rule replaced with:

    • “Loss of containment of the low-pressure side to atmosphere is unlikely to result from a tube rupture where the pressure in the low-pressure side (including upstream and downstream systems) during the tube rupture does not exceed the corrected hydrotest pressure”

    • “Pressure relief for tube rupture is not required where the low-pressure exchanger side (including upstream and downstream systems) does not exceed the criteria noted above.”

  • Dynamic analysis:

    • “This type of analysis is recommended, in addition to the steady-state approach, where there is a wide difference in design pressure between the two exchanger sides [e.g. 7 000 kPa (approx. 1 000 psi) or more], especially where the low-pressure side is liquid-full and the high-pressure side contains a gas or a fluid that flashes across the rupture. Modelling has shown that, under these circumstances, transient conditions can produce overpressure above the test pressure, even when protected by a pressure-relief device [64], [65], [66]. In these cases, additional protection measures should be considered.”


Changes in guidance api521 bs en iso 232511

Changes in Guidance – API521/BS EN ISO 23251

  • Tube rupture design basis:

    • “The user may perform a detailed analysis and/or appropriately design the heat exchanger to determine the design basis other than a full-bore tube rupture. However, each exchanger type should be evaluated for a small tube leak.

      The detailed analysis should consider

      a) tube vibration,

      b) tube material,

      c) tube wall thickness,

      d) tube erosion,

      e) brittle fracture potential,

      f) fatigue or creep,

      g) corrosion or degradation of tubes and tubesheets,

      h) tube inspection programme,

      i) tube to baffle chafing.”


Current practice

Current Practice

  • API521/BS EN ISO 23251 allows use of relief valves or bursting disks but states:

    • “The opening time for the device used…..should also be compatible with the requirements of the system.”

  • Opening times of relief valves considered to be too slow, hence bursting disks commonly used.

  • Advances in heat exchanger design practice e.g. vibration analysis, materials etc. have decreased likelihood of tube rupture


Response times of relief devices

Response Times of Relief Devices

  • Bruce Ewan, University of Sheffield


Sthe overpressure protection

Summary of test conditions and test numbers – phase 1


Sthe overpressure protection

High pressure test

4” graphite disc. Rupture time = 1.9 ms


Sthe overpressure protection

Low pressure test

2” spring loaded RV. 110% open capacity in 6 ms


Sthe overpressure protection

High pressure test

2” spring loaded RV. 110% open capacity in 4 ms


Sthe overpressure protection

Low pressure test

2” pilot operated RV. 110% open capacity in 4 ms


Sthe overpressure protection

High pressure test

2” pilot operated RV. 110% open capacity in 2.5 ms


Sthe overpressure protection

Summary of test conditions – phase 2


Sthe overpressure protection

4L6 safety relief valve

4” relief valve


Sthe overpressure protection

Low pressure test

4L6 safety. 110% open capacity in 10 ms


Sthe overpressure protection

High pressure test

4L6 safety. 110% open capacity in 4 ms


Sthe overpressure protection

SRV, RV and Graphite Disc at High Pressure


Dynamic analysis of tube rupture

Dynamic Analysis of Tube Rupture

  • Ian Wyatt, Atkins


Sthe overpressure protection

Dynamic Modelling of Tube Rupture

Ian Wyatt - Atkins

JIP on Bursting Disks for Shell & Tube Exchangers – 1st Stakeholders Meeting


Api 521 bs en iso 23251 5 19

API-521/BS EN ISO 23251 – 5.19

API-521.BS EN ISO 23251 does not dictate what has to be done:

  • If a steady-state method is used, the relief-device size should be based on the gas and/or liquid flow passing through the rupture.

  • A one-dimensional dynamic modelcan be used …

  • This type of analysis is recommended, in addition to the steady-state approach,

  • where there is a wide difference in design pressure [e.g. 7 000 kPa …

    There is a warning at the bottom:

  • Modelling has shown that, under these circumstances, transient conditions can produce overpressure above the test pressure, even when protected by a pressure-relief device ...


Different exchanger configurations

Different Exchanger Configurations

Similar Tube Rupture consequences apply to all of these configurations:

  • Single pass gas, single pass liquid

  • Multiple pass gas and/or multiple pass liquid

  • HP Gas on tube side or shell side

  • Cooling Duty or Heating Duty

  • Horizontal or Vertical or Angled


Stages to tube rupture

Stages to Tube Rupture

For all configurations there are four phases to the consequences of a Tube Rupture – identified in the tube rupture tests performed as part of the previous JIP:

Phase I – Percussive Shock

Phase II – Fast Transient

Phase III – Liquid Discharge

Phase IV – Gas Discharge


Phase i percussive shock

Phase I – Percussive Shock

  • Rapid rupture creates percussive shock wave

  • Extremely short lived <0.1ms

  • Shell does not ‘feel’ the pressure spikes

  • Not Model


Phase ii fast transient

Phase II – Fast Transient

  • Gas entering shell is faster than time to overcome liquid momentum

  • Fast transient pressure wave results travelling at sonic velocity

  • Pressure wave usually breaks bursting disc

  • Shell and pipework overpressures possible

  • Simulated using software with necessary fast transient capability

  • Shell baffle path ‘straightened’ – 1D Model


Phase ii fast transient1

Phase II – Fast Transient

  • Gas entering shell is faster than time to overcome liquid momentum

  • Fast transient pressure wave results travelling at sonic velocity

  • Pressure wave usually breaks bursting disc

  • Shell and pipework overpressures possible

  • Simulated using software with necessary fast transient capability

  • Shell baffle path ‘straightened’ – 1D Model


Phase iii liquid discharge

Phase III – Liquid Discharge

  • Gas bubble grows towards exits

  • Liquid displaced through available exits

  • Volume flow balance between bubble and displaced liquid

  • Possible to over pressurise Shell and connected pipework

  • Gas-Liquid interfaces affect pipe supports

  • Shell baffle path ‘straightened’ – 1D Model


Phase iv gas discharge

Phase IV – Gas Discharge

  • Gas from rupture passes out of system

  • Pseudo steady state depending on gas supply

  • Usually not modelled


Results

Results

  • Relief device does not always protect against over pressure

  • Even some below 2/3rds rule exceed limits – two of them lower pipework design pressures


Sthe overpressure protection the problem

STHE Overpressure Protection – the “problem”

  • Increased use of bursting disks to protect STHEs over past 10 to 15 years

  • Estimated frequency of guillotine tube rupture

    • 0.0009 per unit per year (~1 per 1,100 years)[1]

  • Frequency of bursting disk failures protecting STHEs

    • 7 incidents in 13 years (~50 exchangers)

    • 0.011 per unit per year (~1 per 90 years)[2]

  • Future growth in numbers of high pressure STHEs requiring overpressure protection

  • Has the balance of risk shifted?

  • IP Guidelines for the Design and Sae Operation of Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers to Withstand the Impact of Tube Failure, Aug 2000

  • Estimate based on incidents known to BP


Sthe overpressure protection the problem1

STHE Overpressure Protection – the “problem”

Two major hazards associated with bursting disk failures:

  • Impairment of relief system – liquid inflow & overfill

  • Incident escalation - reverse rupture leads to uncontrolled hydrocarbon release from relief system


Incident 1 liquid overfill

Flare

Relief Header

PSHH

Flare Knockout Drum

Incident #1 – liquid overfill

  • Bursting disk rupture in forward direction

  • PSHH in void space of bursting disk assembly fails to isolate exchanger

  • Sustained cooling medium flow into relief system

  • Liquid overfill & potential overpressure of knockout drum


Incident 2 excessive backpressure

Incident #2 – excessive backpressure

80 psig Burst

80 psig Burst

50 psig

100 psig

225 psig

225 psig

Note: The top disc impacted bottom disc causing it to also rupture


Sthe overpressure protection

Incident #2 ctd.


Any other incidents

Any other incidents……?

???


Design operational issues

Design & Operational Issues

  • HSE Safety alert 01/2008 Steve Murray, HSE


Bursting disc failure flare system impairment

Bursting disc failure: flare system impairment

Stephen Murray

HSE Inspector, Offshore Division


Hse safety alert 01 2008

HSE Safety Alert 01/2008

http://www.hse.gov.uk/offshore/alerts/sa_01_08.htm

Alerts:

  • to advise industry of incidents

  • enable lessons to be learned

  • industry takes appropriate action to avoid similar incidents


Hse safety alert 01 20081

HSE Safety Alert 01/2008

SWR

HP Flare Drum

Heat Exch.

SWS

gas


Hse safety alert 01 20082

LAH

ESDV

HSE Safety Alert 01/2008

SWR

PAH

ESD

HP Flare Drum

Heat Exch.

LP flare drum

ESDV

gas

Closed drain

SWS

Over-board


Hse safety alert 01 20083

LAH

ESDV

HSE Safety Alert 01/2008

What happened?

press =

4 barg

(no alarm)

liquid @+40m

disc failure

does not trip seawater pumps

water enters drum

tell-tail blocked?

no level >LAH

SWR

no alarm

PAH

overfills

ESD

HP Flare Drum

Heat Exch.

LP flare drum

ESDV

gas

not tight shut-off

fills

fills

Closed drain

SWS

Over-board

closed


Hse safety alert 01 20084

HSE Safety Alert 01/2008

Summary

  • uncontrolled flow of seawater into flare system

  • several hours to identify source

  • flaring event may have lead to serious gas release


Hse safety alert 01 20085

HSE Safety Alert 01/2008

Lessons

  • Be aware of potential for impairment of flare/relief system from uncontrolled cooling medium flow from ruptured bursting disc

  • Ensure disc rupture will initiate measures to ensure isolation of cooling medium so that flare/relief system is not compromised


Hse safety alert 01 20086

HSE Safety Alert 01/2008

Legal requirements

  • Provision and use of Work Equipment Regs 1998

  • Management of Health & Safety at Work Regs 1999

  • Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire & Explosion and ER) Regs 1995


Bursting disc failure flare system impairment1

Bursting disc failure: flare system impairment

Stephen Murray

HSE Inspector, OSD


Design operational issues1

Design & Operational Issues

  • Bursting disks utilised for overpressure protection of STHEs

    • Once opened, they maintain an open flow path from the process/utility system to the relief system.

    • A sufficient margin (~30%) must be maintained between operating and set pressure to avoid rupture. In STHE applications, they are often located on cooling medium systems which can be susceptible to pressure surges.

    • Failure in the reverse direction due to superimposed backpressures from the relief system.


Design operational issues2

Design & Operational Issues

  • Bursting disks utilised for overpressure protection of STHEs

    • Once opened, they maintain an open flow path from the process/utility system to the relief system.

    • A sufficient margin (~30%) must be maintained between operating and set pressure to avoid rupture. In STHE applications, they are often located on cooling medium systems which can be susceptible to pressure surges.

    • Failure in the reverse direction due to superimposed backpressures from the relief system.


Design operational issues3

Design & Operational Issues

  • Selection of relief route

    • Multiphase – high velocity liquid slugs

    • HP or LP flare system (high pressure gas under relief conditions but large liquid volumes under a failure case)

    • Should relief from STHEs be segregated from other relief routes?

  • Is HAZOP effective at identifying potential failure modes and consequences?

  • Additional protective measures required for failure cases.


Gaps in current guidance

Gaps in current guidance

  • Broader design requirements associated with bursting disks and interface with relief systems not addressed

  • At what pressure ratio are relief valves acceptable?

    • Large differential pressure may actually favour relief valve – extent of overpressure may yield sufficiently rapid response

    • Lower differential pressures – shell & nozzles may survive overpressure.

  • What extent and duration of overpressure is acceptable?


Aims of jip

Aims of JIP

  • Eliminate or mitigate hazards associated with overpressure protection of STHEs

  • Develop revised set of design guidelines for overpressure protection of STHEs principally to address:

    • Heat exchanger design.

    • Relief device selection.


Heat exchanger design 1

Heat Exchanger Design (1)

  • Determine criteria to assess if guillotine fracture is possible based on the mechanical properties of the materials of construction used in heat exchanger tubes.

  • Determine any minimum tube thickness specification required to prevent guillotine fracture.

  • Define the vibration analysis requirements that need to be applied to ensure that the likelihood of guillotine fracture is minimised.

  • Define any sensitivity analysis of process variations which should be carried out to ensure that the design is robust.


Heat exchanger design 2

Heat Exchanger Design (2)

  • Determine if differential pressure limits can be established below which transient effects can be ignored.

  • Determine the maximum allowable transient overpressures in the shell under tube rupture conditions to cater for peak pressures. This will require experimental and analytical work.

  • Determine the impact of transient loads on the piping systems if bursting disks are not applied for overpressure and develop appropriate design guidelines to ensure that the piping design is robust but not overly conservative.


Relief device selection

Relief Device Selection

  • Develop a rule-set for relief device selection to accommodate the tube rupture case

    • Scale-up to typical relief device sizes encountered in real applications.

    • Testing of response times of a variety of relief valves to a range of overpressures .

    • Establish mechanical integrity criteria for relief valves for use in tube rupture service.

    • Establish the range of process conditions for which conventional relief valves could be utilised to protect against tube rupture and those for which bursting disks are required. This needs to consider aspects such as differential design pressure between low and high pressure side of exchanger etc.


Shopping list issues captured in stakeholders meeting

Shopping list – issues captured in Stakeholders’ meeting

  • Deliverable – software

  • Criteria for selecting RDs

  • Set points – selection criteria

  • Overpressure/overpressure times

  • Testing and inspection

  • Type/size/etc of RD and response capability, affecting selection

  • Design issues including

    • Instrumentation

    • Seawater system

  • Learning from experience – what went wrong: capture findings/lessons learned

  • Construction/operation/maintenance etc of whole system

  • HAZOP – pertinent guide words (like RABS guidelines)

  • HE stress distribution – revisit/extend Sheff Uni work


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